PG4 – Minerals I

PG4– - Which is the mantle Which is the lithosphere Which is a mid ocean ridge Which is a trench How does heat move in the mantle A

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Unformatted text preview: Which is the mantle? Which is the lithosphere? Which is a mid ocean ridge? Which is a trench? How does heat move in the mantle: A. Divergence B. Radiation C. Convection D. Conduction Three different boundaries Divergent Plate Boundary Also called: Spreading boundary Mid-ocean ridge Ridge Three different boundaries Convergent Plate Boundary Also called: Convergent margin Subduction zone Trench Three different boundaries Transform Boundary Also called: Transform fault Minerals Building Blocks of Rocks The Hope Diamond Stibnite Sb2S3 Rhodochrosite MnCO3 Cassiterite SnO2 Gold Rutile Azurite Realgar Magnetite Sphalerite Orthoclase Feldspar (KAlSi3O8) Atomic structure Atomic mass/Atomic number Isotopes Two or more atoms of the same atomic number but with different atomic mass Ionic Bond NaCl (Halite or table salt) Covalent bonding - Electron sharing Diamond Van Der Waals Bonds Ionic bonds involve the _________ of electrons. A. exchange B. elimination C. substitution D. sharing Covalent bonds involve the _________ of electrons. A. exchange B. elimination C. substitution D. sharing Mineral definition A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a regular internal atomic structure and a specific chemical composition. Solid solution series Olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 Mg Forsterite Fe Fayalite Glass Quartz crystals Halite NaCl Fluorite CaF2 Nicholas Steno (1669) Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles The angles between two corresponding faces on the crystals of any mineral are constant and characteristic of the mineral regardless of size, occurrence, or whether they are natural or artificial. Quartz 120o 120o 120o 120o 120o 120o 120o Max von Laue (1912) An x-ray beam passing through a crystal creates a regular pattern on a screen The crystal’s orderly arrangement of atoms splits the beam into many tiny beams that interfere with one another …the diffracted beams create the pattern Ultrahigh Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Galena Polymorphs Carbon P.L. Kresan Minerals with the same chemical composition but a different atomic arrangement Graphite Atomic Structure Atomic Structure Diamond Crystal Form E.R. Degginger, Photo Researchers So why are diamond and graphite so different: A. they are made from different elements B. they are made from different kinds of carbon C. diamonds are older than graphite D. graphite has impurities E. they formed in very different conditions In order for carbon atoms to assume the structure found in diamond, they must be exposed to: A. low pressures B. low temperatures C. extremely high pressures D. excess natural radiation Diamonds form in response to extreme pressure •  Graphite is a more immature phase –  exposed to lower pressure •  Diamond forms in mantle under high pressure •  Presence of a mineral can tell a lot about the conditions of formation Crystal •  Crystal - A homogenous solid with a regular internal atomic structure and having smooth external surfaces with characteristic angles between them •  The flat surfaces are Crystal faces –  Grow naturally when mineral forms •  Crystals form in a variety of geometries in shapes, some mundane, others spectacular Quartz Dolphin? Quartz Crystal face Galena crystals Pyrite crystals Calcite crystals Quartz crystal Crystal Formation Crystallization from a magma Precipitation from solution Crystal growth in the solid state Liquid Solid water ice Lava/Magma Rock (composed of minerals) Granite Amethyst Geode Large space allows well developed crystal faces Gypsum crystals up to 11 m long ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/27/2011 for the course GEOGRAPHY 101 taught by Professor Vancura during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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