Unformatted text preview: What we’ll
cover today Re v iew from Days 1
and 2 Det
ails about Exam
1 Mo r
e on the research
process, and how
leads us to ethica
issues Review: The value of numbers How can numbers have symbolic value? How can numbers have instrumental value?
The 2010 Census as an example:
The value of being counted Evaluating reported research
Who produced the research? Researchers’ home institutions, funding agencies, permission
granting institutions (IRB, research sites) What was the purpose of the research? Academic, evaluative, commercial, theoretical?
What were the research questions & hypotheses?
What contribution dos the research make? Does it ask
questions worth answering? Who participated in the research? How were people included/excluded? Study size? Review: The Truth Wears Off What is the decline effect? What is publication bias? Why do these things matter for how we
understand the results of research? Research Ethics
Research Primary Responsibilities of
Researchers Accuracy Only report what you’ve found
Take steps to correct mistakes if they have been published
Allow replication of results Adhere to regulations about research Research Ethics: Historical Context
Research Nuremberg Code Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment Milgram Experiment Shift in 1990s: Go slow vs. Right to access treatment Ethical Issue #1:
People can’t be coerced into
participating in research
participating Research subjects have to be free to leave an experiment at any time, and without fear of retribution.
Rewards/incentives for participation can be an ethical problem as well—extra credit for classes, reduced sentences, etc.
Which groups are considered capable of voluntary participation & which are considered vulnerable populations? Ethical Issue #2: Informed Consent
Prospective research participants must be
fully informed about the procedures and risks
involved in research BEFORE consenting to
Informed Consent Must Include:
Informed Consent Must Include: Purpose of the research, expected duration, included procedures
Right to decline participation—or to leave the study at any time
Any consequences to withdrawing or declining
Potential risks, discomforts, or adverse effects
Any prospective benefits to the research (personal or societal)
Limits to confidentiality
Incentives to participate
Who to contact regarding questions about the research or participants’ rights. Ethical Issue #3: Do No Harm
Ethical Participants should not be at risk of harm as a result of participating. Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological. HarmBenefit analysis Ethical Issue #4: Right to Privacy
Ethical Almost all research guarantees the participants’ confidentiality: Participants are assured that identifying information will not be shared with anyone but other researchers involved in the study. The stricter standard is the principle of anonymity which essentially means that the participant will remain anonymous throughout the study even to the researchers themselves. How do we ensure that
researchers take the needs of
participants into consideration?
participants Institutional Review Boards
Institutional Review Boards
Purpose of IRB:
► Determine the level of risk in the study
► Do the potential benefits outweigh the risks?
► Monitor informed consent and voluntary participation
► IRB Issues IRB: Specially Protected Groups
IRB: Specially Protected Groups
► Children ► Adults not competent to consent
► Immigrants ► Employees/Students
► Pregnant Women ► Prisoners/Wards/Detainees When do you not need informed When do you not need informed consent? When: ► Research is not reasonably expected to cause distress or harm
► The study involves normal observation of public behavior (ex: how undergrads interact in a classroom activity)—i.e. when collected information is not personal. IRB still makes the determination Deception Studies
Deception Studies ► Can only be conducted if this is the only justifiable way to conduct the study
► Cannot be used for studies that are reasonable expected to cause physical pain or emotional distress [Do No Harm]
► Deception must be explained to participants as soon as possible, and definitely before the end of the study
Participants can withdraw their data if they choose to when debriefed Common Types of Deception Common Types of Deception Studies Medical Trials
► Placebos in drug trials.
► Bypassing the bypass surgery ► Participants’ right to service
► Ex: Wakefield’s Autism Study
Obedience to Authority
► Ex: Milgram Experiment Ethical Issue #5: Debriefing
Ethical Goal: Ensure that participants leave the research project with at least as much self
esteem and low anxiety that they came in with
Opportunity for them to ask questions, talk about their feelings and experience—can be useful for researcher too. ...
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- Spring '08
- Ethics , researcher, Informed consent