Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions
Capital budgeting (deciding on whether to expand a manufacturing plant), capital structure (deciding
whether to issue new equity and use the proceeds to retire outstanding debt), and working capital
management (modifying the firm’s credit collection policy with its customers).
Disadvantages: unlimited liability, limited life, difficulty in transferring ownership, hard to raise
capital funds. Some advantages: simpler, less regulation, the owners are also the managers,
sometimes personal tax rates are better than corporate tax rates.
The primary disadvantage of the corporate form is the double taxation to shareholders of distributed
earnings and dividends. Some advantages include: limited liability, ease of transferability, ability to
raise capital, and unlimited life.
The treasurer’s office and the controller’s office are the two primary organizational groups that
report directly to the chief financial officer. The controller’s office handles cost and financial
accounting, tax management, and management information systems. The treasurer’s office is
responsible for cash and credit management, capital budgeting, and financial planning. Therefore,
the study of corporate finance is concentrated within the functions of the treasurer’s office.
To maximize the current market value (share price) of the equity of the firm (whether it’s publicly
traded or not).
In the corporate form of ownership, the shareholders are the owners of the firm. The shareholders
elect the directors of the corporation, who in turn appoint the firm’s management. This separation of
ownership from control in the corporate form of organization is what causes agency problems to
exist. Management may act in its own or someone else’s best interests, rather than those of the
shareholders. If such events occur, they may contradict the goal of maximizing the share price of the
equity of the firm.
A primary market transaction.
In auction markets like the NYSE, brokers and agents meet at a physical location (the exchange) to
buy and sell their assets. Dealer markets like Nasdaq represent dealers operating in dispersed locales
who buy and sell assets themselves, usually communicating with other dealers electronically or
literally over the counter.
Since such organizations frequently pursue social or political missions, many different goals are
conceivable. One goal that is often cited is revenue minimization; i.e., providing their goods and
services to society at the lowest possible cost. Another approach might be to observe that even a not-
for-profit business has equity. Thus, an appropriate goal would be to maximize the value of the