Chapter 15

Chapter 15 - Intro to Oceanography: Chapter 15 I. How Are...

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: Chapter 15 I. How Are Benthic Organisms Distributed? a. The vast majority of known benthic species live on the continental shelf, where water is often shallow enough to allow sunlight to penetrate to the ocean bottom and support photosynthesis. b. Coastal water temperature – one of the most important variables affecting species diversity II. What Communities Exist along Rocky Shores? a. Epifauna – organisms that live on the surface of the ocean floor b. The greatest animal diversity is at lower (tropical) latitudes, while the diversity of algae is greater in the midlatitudes, probably because of better availability of nutrients c. Intertidal Zonation i. Spray Zone – above the spring high tide line and is covered by water only during storms ii. Intertidal zone – lies between the high and low tidal extremes 1. high tide zone – relatively dry and is covered only by the highest high dies 2. middle tide zone – covered by all high tides and exposed during all low tides 3. low tide zone – usually wet but is exposed during the lowest low tides d. The Spray (Supratidal) Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations i. Spray zone must avoid drying out during long period when they are above water level e. The High Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations i. Most inhabit the high tide zone have a protective covering preventing them from drying out ii. Sessile – those attached to the bottom, such as barnacles and mussels f. The Middle Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations i. Mussel bed can often be one of the most recognizable features of middle tidal zones along rocky coats ii. Sea anemones have tentacles that are covered with stinging needlelike cells called nematocysts, which inject the victim with a potent neurotoxin g. The Low Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations i. Always submerged ii. Red and brown algae provide a drooping canopy beneath which much of the animal life can hide during low tide iii. Shore crabs help keep the shore clean by eating algae III. What Communities Exist along Sediment-Covered Shores? a.
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2008 for the course ES 15 taught by Professor Schauble during the Fall '06 term at UCLA.

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Chapter 15 - Intro to Oceanography: Chapter 15 I. How Are...

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