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Unformatted text preview: Department of Physics and Astronomy Third Year Thermodynamics 2010-2011 Lecture TOPIC 1 1 (Finn : 1.1,1.3,1.5) Synopsis : Preview, and introduction. Systems, surroundings and thermodynamic variables; work and equilibrium introduced. Thermodynamics is the only physical theory of universal content which I am con- vinced, within the areas of applicability of its basic concepts, will never be over- thrown A. Einstein 1949 Some definitions Sample of interest = the system , interacts with surroundings , System and surroundings are separated by some kind of boundary wall. Closed system System cannot exchange matter with its sur- roundings, but may exchange energy eg. a fixed mass of compressible fluid in a cylinder closed by a moveable ideal piston (ideal = no leaks). Isolated system No exchange of anything whatsoever includ- ing any form of energy with surroundings. eg piston fixed in position, and piston and cylin- der insulated so there is no heat conduction. system surroundings rest of universe- gas Main postulate of thermodynamics Isolated systems settle into equilibrium states having uniform macroscopic proper- ties (in the absence of potentials)*, eg uniform pressure P , uniform density = mass /V , uniform magnetisation etc. If we disturb the system we will get the same response inde- pendent of where we carry out the measurement eg uniform thermal conductivity, uniform 1 file topic01.pdf 1 colour etc...
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