chemical hydrolysis of carbohydrates

chemical hydrolysis of carbohydrates - Lab topic...

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Lab topic: Macromolecules 2: Polysaccharides, nucleic acids Chemical hydrolysis of carbohydrates After this exercise you will be able to describe the test that indicates presence of starch, define the chemical process of hydrolysis and be able to give an example of hydrolysis of carbohydrates. Introduction Polysaccharides are carbohydrate macromolecules. These polymers consist of long chains of monosaccharide subunits linked together by glycosidic bonds. The linear form of starch – amylose, is a polysaccharide composed of glucose subunits joined by 1-4 glycosidic linkages. The branched component of starch – amylopectin has also 1-6 glycosidic linkages at the branching points. Starch is the storage material for glucose in plants. The starch of potatoes and root vegetables would be used next spring for the plant’s renewed growth. The annual plants like wheat, maize (corn) and rice, which die at the end of the season, stock starch in their seeds and use it during the germination next spring. They are also the major source of starch in human diet. Animals store glucose in glycogen, polymer of glucose similar to amylopectin, but more extensively branched. Another plant polysaccharide – cellulose is the major building material in plants. It is composed of glucose subunits linked by β 1-4 glycosidic bond. In starch and glycogen the glucose subunits are linked by α 1-4 (or α 1-6) glycosidic bonds. The different glycosidic bonds in starch and cellulose give the polymers different three dimensional
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chemical hydrolysis of carbohydrates - Lab topic...

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