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Chapter 12 - Intro to Oceanography Chapter 12 I How Are...

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Intro to Oceanography : Chapter 12 I. How Are Living Things Classified a. The Three Domains of Life i. Archaea – group of simple microscopic bacteria-like creatures that includes methane producers and sulfur oxidizers that inhabit deep-sea vents and seeps, as well as other forms – many of which prefer environments with extreme temperatures and/or pressures ii. Bacteria – simple life forms with cells that usually lack a nucleus, including purple bacteria, green nonsulfur bacteria, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) iii. Euarya – includes complex organisms – protoctists, fungi, and multicellular plants and animals – with cells that usually contain a nucleus b. The Five Kingoms of Organisms i. Monera – single celled but lack a discrete nucleus 1. cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), heterotrophic bacteria, and archaea ii. Protoctista – single and multicelled organisms that have nucleus 1. various algae and single-celled animals called protozoa iii. Fungi – includes 100,000 species of mold and lichen, others remineralize organic matter and function primarily as decomposers in the marine ecosystem iv. Plantae – multicelled plants, all of which photosynthesize v. Animalia – multicelled animals 1. simple sponges to complex vertebrates c. Taxonomic Classification i. Taxonomy – systematic classification of organisms into specific groups (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) ii. Species – fundamental unit of classification consisting of populations of genetically similar, interbreeding individuals that share a collection of inherited characteristics whose combination is unique II. How Are Marine Organisms Classified? a. According to where they live and how they move b. Plankton (Floaters) i. Plankton include all organisms that drift with ocean currents ii. Plankter – individual organism iii. Types of Plankton 1. Autotrophic – photosynthesize producing its own food 2. Phytoplankton – autotrophic plankton 3. Heterotrophic – relies on food produced by other organism 4. Zooplankton – heterotrophic plankton 5. Bacterioplankton and Virioplankton 6. Holoplankton – entire lives as plankton 7. Meroplankton – adult as nekton and juvenile as plankton 8. Macroplankton (jellyfish) and Picoplankton (bacterioplankton)
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