CHEM151Chapter 4

Chemistry (MasteringChemistry Series)

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 4 Reactions in 1 Aqueous Solution Observing and Predicting Reactions Precipitate Fire! Explosion!! 2 How do we know when a reaction is taking place? Smoke Bubbles Change in Temperature Properties of Aqueous Solutions – Solution : homogeneous mixture of two or more substances Most reactions in general chemistry take place in an aqueous (aq) environment. What does that mean? NaCl – Solute : substance present in smaller amount – Solvent : substance present in greater amount – Aqueous solution : solvent is water 2 Properties of Aqueous Solutions Substances behave differently when they are placed in water; specifically ionic versus covalent compounds. NaCl CH 3 OH Electrolyte Na + Na + Cl- Cl- CH 3 OH CH 3 OH Electrolyte Non- Electrolyte Na + Cl- CH 3 OH Electrolytic Properties Strong electrolyte: substance that, when dissolved in water, results in a solution that can conduct electricity Weak electrolyte: substance that is a poor conductor of electricity when dissolved in water Non-electrolyte: substance that doesn’t conduct electricity when dissolved in water (CH3OH – methanol dissolved in water (CH3OH methanol) Ionize <100% Ionize 100% Ionize 0% Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutions Electrolytes conduct electricity in aqueous solutions by moving toward the oppositely charged electrode Non- electrolytes , however, do not have charges in aqueous solutions and are not attracted to the electrodes Electrolytes Non-electrolytes 3 Six General Types of Reactions • Double Replacement (Precipitation) • Single Replacement • Acid – Base Neutralization Most of the time, products of these reactions can be easily predicted • Acid Base Neutralization • Combustion • Combination • Decomposition Sometimes products of these reactions cannot be easily predicted Double Replacement / Precipitation Reactions Soluble ionic compound AB dissolved in H 2 O Soluble ionic compound CD dissolved in H 2 O Insoluble precipitate (BC) formed from mixing AB + CD Will not dissolve in H 2 O Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) → 2KNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) AB (aq) + CD (aq) → AD (aq) + BC (s) In general: Example: How do we know what is soluble? We have rules… Pb (NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 K I (aq) → 2 K NO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) 4 Chemistry Humor…tell all your friends! We’re a clever Lot! Solubility Rules • Determine if the following ionic compounds will be soluble (aq) or insoluble (s) in water: • K 2 CO 3 • BaSO 4 PbC • PbCl 2 • NaClO 4 • Ag 2 S • (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 • Cu(OH) 2 Solubility Rules Answers • Determine if the following ionic compounds will be soluble (aq) or insoluble (s) in water: • K 2 CO 3 soluble (aq) • BaSO 4 insoluble (s) PbC insoluble (s • PbCl 2 insoluble (s) • NaClO 4 soluble (aq) • Ag 2 S insoluble (s) • (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 soluble (aq) • Cu(OH) 2 insoluble (s) 5 Predicting Products of Double Replacement MgCl 2 (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) → ???...
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CHEM151Chapter 4 - 1 Chapter 4 Reactions in 1 Aqueous...

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