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CHEM151Chapter 5 Cont

Chemistry (MasteringChemistry Series)

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9/11/2008 1 C HAPTER 5 C ONT . Periodicity and 1 Atomic Structure D IFFERENCE B ETWEEN E NERGY & M ATTER | Energy has wavelength y Refraction – speed changes when light passes through different mediums | Air to water | Causes change in direction y Diffraction – light bends around an object | Light is diffracted in a prism – light is separated by v & λ | Rainbows | Particles act differently y They do not refract nor diffract D IFFRACTION & R EFRACTION | Diffraction – light moves around something | Refraction – light moves through a medium
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9/11/2008 2 P ARTICLE N ATURE OF L IGHT | Blackbody radiation – light given off by the intense heating of a black body | Examples – fire, heating coils, light bulbs y Glowing bodies could emit or absorb certain quantities of radiation or energy | E = nhv | E = Energy | v = Frequency | h = Planck’s Constant = 6.626x10 -34 J·s | n = Quantum Number (1,2,3,...) | Quantum Number – Each atom has a certain amount of “packets” of energy to give-up or absorb | Each packet (quantum) = hv P ARTICLE N ATURE OF L IGHT C ONT . | Quantum cont. y Energy of light changes in integers of hv. | Δ E atom = E emitted or absorbed radiation = Δ nhv y Lowest energy change Δ n =1 | Δ E = hv F ROM C LASSICAL TO Q UANTUM T HEORY | Quantum has come to mean small; originated from Planck’s observation of quantized energy | Einstein used this theory Æ Photoelectric Effect
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