CHEM151Chapter 10

Chemistry (MasteringChemistry Series)

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Unformatted text preview: 10/14/2008 1 Chapter 10 Liquids, Solids, Liquids, Solids, 1 and Phase and Phase Changes Changes Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules z Draw Lewis Structures for CCl 4 and CH 3 Cl. z What’s the same? What’s different? What s different? z Bonds are polar if electrons are shared unequally (differences in electronegativity) (e.g., HCl) z Individual bonds can be polar but can result in Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments z Individual bonds can be polar but can result in a nonpolar molecule (e.g., CO 2 ) z Molecules with a lone pair of electrons or atoms with different electronegativities are polar (have a dipole moment) δ + δ - H : Cl 3 10/14/2008 2 Polar or Nonpolar Molecules? z Draw Lewis Structures and Dipole Moments along each bond: z HCl z CCl 4 z NH 3 z BF 3 z CH 3 Cl z H 2 Dipole Moments 5 Intermolecular Forces (IMF) z Bonds: attractive forces within molecules z Intermolecular Forces (IMF) : attractive forces between molecules z Intermolecular forces are WEAKER than bonds (intramolecular forces), but have profound effects on the properties of liquids { Boiling point, melting point, and etc… 431 kJ/mol 16 kJ/mol 10/14/2008 3 Intermolecular Forces As a group, intermolecular forces are called van der Waals forces: { London Dispersion { Dipole-dipole { Hydrogen bonds { Ion-dipole z van der Waals Radius { ½ the distance between to non-bonded nuclei { How far apart are the molecules Dispersion Forces – Weakest (#1) z London dispersion forces : attractive forces that result from temporary shift of electrons in atoms or molecules; present in all molecules z Explains why certain nonpolar substances benzene, bromine, etc.) are liquids at room temperature. temperature....
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CHEM151Chapter 10 - 10/14/2008 1 Chapter 10 Liquids,...

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