CHM152Chapter 22 - 6

Chemistry (MasteringChemistry Series)

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5/4/2011 1 C HAPTER 22: N UCLEAR C HEMISTRY 22.1 R EACTIONS AND C HARACTERISTICS Z–Atom ic Number A–Mass Number Isotopes–same atom, different # of neutrons Nucleons – nuclear particles Nuclide – nucleus of given isotope C HARACTERISITCS Nuclear Reaction – Change nucleus Different from chemical reactions Change in nucleus Different isotopes behave the same in chemical reactions, not in nuclear reactions Rate is unaffected Nuclear reactions same whether in elemental form or compound Δ E nuclear >>> Δ E reaction 22.2 N R EACTIONS & R ADIOACTIVITY Radioactive = spontaneous decay or emission of radiation Radionuclide – radioactive nucleus 3 Major Types Rutherford Studied R Alpha ( α ) – Helium Nuclei ( ) or Common in Heavy Radioisotopes Example: Note: Nuclear Rxns MUST be balanced wrt A & Z Also ignore charges R Beta ( β )–Stream of electrons Written as or Use when writing nuclear rxns Example:
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5/4/2011 2 22.2 N UCLEAR R EACTIONS & R ADIOACTIVITY Gamma ( γ )–“packets of energy” What is a “packet of energy”? Does it change the nucleus? Usually accompanies α & β Example: C 13 undergoing alpha and gamma decay R Other Types of Radiation: (2) Positron Emission ( or ) In nucleus: proton neutron releasing positive charge El Example: Electron Capture ( ) Nucleus captures inner shell electron Proton Neutron Example: R Summary of Radioactive Decay, see Table 22.1 p 906 Examples: Write balanced nuclear equations for the following. A) lh ii f Ci 242 A) alpha emission of Curium B) Beta emission of magnesium 28 C) Positron emission of Xenon 118 22.4 Nuclear Stability Unstable Isotopes–decay too fast to be measured Stable–decay can be measured Nonradioactive (stable indefinitely)–DO NOT decay at all Why are some radioactive and others not? Proton/Neutron Ratio 1 st 92 Naturally Occurring Next 17 “Transuranium Elements” “Band of Stability” 264/3600 known nuclides are stable indefinitely “Island of Stability” – predicted for Island of Stability predicted for a few super heavy nuclides See Figure 22.3 p.911 Generalizations:
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CHM152Chapter 22 - 6 - 5/4/2011 22.2 N UCLEAR R EACTIONS...

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