CHEM 11 Notes FULL

CHEM 11 Notes FULL - Lecture: 9/27/10 Whats the Matter?...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture: 9/27/10 Whats the Matter? Matter: What is it? o Anything that has mass and occupies a volume (space) o Made up of building blocks o Particles Atoms Electrons/neutrons/protons Leptons/quarks The Classification of Matter o Three Different Physical states Solid fixed volume and shape (rigid) Liquid fixed volume but variable shape Gas no fixed volume or shape; expands to fill the vessel it occupies (fluid) o Types of particles (atoms, etc.) Mixtures vs. pure substances Mixture blend of two or more substances, each of which retains its chemical identity o Air is a homogenous mixture of several gases, including nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.93%) Pure substance (an idealization) does not change its chemical characteristics upon exhaustive attempts at purification o Atomic interpretation a pure substance possesses a structure that is composed of a definite number and kinds of atoms that are connected in a specific manner o May be either elements of compounds Elements vs. compounds Element substance which cannot be decomposed into simpler substances (elements) by ordinary chemical or physical means (obsolete definition) example: oxygen o Atomic interpretation contains only one kind of atom example: oxygen atoms in oxygen O2 Compound can be decomposed into simpler substances (different elements) by chemical processes example: water (hydrogen and oxygen) o Atomic interpretation contains atoms of two or more chemical elements example: H2O (water) Properties of Matter o Chemical property ability of a substance to change into another substance (to react) o Physical property characteristic that we can observe or measure without changing the identity of the substance Examples: melting point, hardness, color, density, mass Physical quantity = numerical value x unit The Transformation of Matter o Physical vs. Chemical Changes Physical change any transformation that does not alter the chemical identity of the substance; it involves a change in physical properties alone Examples: mixing of two solids (such as salt and sugar); dividing a solid into multiple pieces (cutting a piece of Al); change of shape (drawing copper metal into a wire); change of state Phase Change Change of state or phase is the conversion of a substance from one physical state to another that is affected by changes in temperature and/or pressure Solid Gas (deposition) Gas Solid (sublimation) Chemical change Chemical reaction process in which one set of substances, the reactants, is transformed into a new set of substances, the products. Reactants and products can be elements, compounds, or a combination thereof Lecture: 9/29/10 Measurements in Chemistry Measurements and Units o Measurement the collection of quantitative data o Proper handling and interpretation of measurements are essential...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course CHEM 11 taught by Professor Dipasquale during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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CHEM 11 Notes FULL - Lecture: 9/27/10 Whats the Matter?...

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