Final Study Guide

Final Study Guide - Study Guide for Final: Homework: Be...

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Study Guide for Final: Homework: Be able to answer the same questions posed in your homework assignments, and know the main idea of each article. Debates: Be able to argue both sides of at least 3 debates well. 1. Know function and properties of: Plasma Membrane – “gatekeeper” lets in and out nutrients and other foreign objects; selective barrier, phospholipid bilayer (hydrophobic tails, hydrophilic heads) Nucleus – stores DNA Ribosomes – synthesize proteins; protein factories Endoplasmic Reticulum – smooth detoxifies; rough processes and sends proteins Golgi – tags molecules with sugars; exports proteins Lysosome – consumes waste and takes it out of the cell Mitochondria – produces energy and nutrients; has own DNA; powerhouse of cell Cytoskeleton – framework of cell; You should know enough to be able to answer questions like… Which organelle is most like a hard disk, storing information? a. ER b. Nucleus c. lysosome d. cytoskeleton 2. Know what happens to your photoreceptors when exposed to direct sunlight. Bleaches pigment and decreases signal; Cones active 3. Know the parts of an atom (proton, neutron, electron) and know what type of charge each part possesses. Proton positive, neutron neutral, electron negative 4. Be able to describe the difference between an inert and a reactive atom. Inert – filled valence shell (noble gases) 8 valence electrons Reactive – partial valence (carbons) 4 valence electrons; makes bonds with others 5. Be able to list the types of bonds in order of strength (Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen), and be able to describe how the bonds work (Covalent—share electrons, Ionic—one atom donates, the other receives, Hydrogen—weak attraction between partial positive and partial negative charges). 5. Know the difference between the terms hydrophilic and hydrophobic, and be able to tell me if lipids (hydrophobic), carbohydrates (hydrophilic) and proteins (could be both depending on R group) are hydrophilic or hydrophobic Hydrophilic – molecules that readily form hydrogen bonds with water of hydrogen bonding Hydrophobic – non-polar molecules that tend to minimize their contact with water 6. Know why water can dissolve polar and charged molecules and atoms Water is polar, polar molecules can dissolve easier with other polar molecules 7. Know what unusual solid water forms Ice – less dense than liquid form
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8. Know what unique property of carbon allows it to make bonds with so many different atoms (tetravalence) Can form 4 covalent bonds because carbon has 4 valence electrons 9. Know what a carbohydrate is (sugar) 10. Know the name for a polymer of sugar (polysaccharide(many), disaccharide (2)) 11. Know the difference between saturated and unsaturated fat (hint: it’s in the bonds) Saturated: each carbon atom in hydrocarbon chain of fatty acid is bonded to two hydrogen atoms, thus the at molecule carries the maximum number of hydrogen atoms Unsaturated: some of the carbon atoms are bound to only a single hydrogen
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Final Study Guide - Study Guide for Final: Homework: Be...

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