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Chapter 11 - Intro to Oceanography Chapter 11 I What Laws...

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Intro to Oceanography : Chapter 11 I. What Laws Govern Ocean Ownership? a. Mare Liberum and the Territorial Sea i. Mare liberum – freedom of the seas to all nations ii. De dominio maris provided for national domain over the sea out to the distance that could be protected by cannons from the shore, an area called the territorial sea iii. The British had determined in 1672 that cannon range extended 1 league (3 nautical miles) from shore b. Law of the Sea i. United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, held in 1958 in Geneva, Switzerland, established that prospecting and mining of minerals on the continental shelf was under the control of the country that owned the nearest land ii. Second Conference in 1960 made little progress to solving the problem of interpreting the length of the continental shelf iii. Third treaty provided several provisions 1. Coastal nations jurisdiction – uniform 19-kilometer territorial sea and a 370-kilometer exclusive economic zone (EEZ) from all land. If the continental shelf exceeds 370-mile EEZ, it is extended to 648 kilometers 2. Ship passage – fight of free passage for all vessels on high seas is preserved 3. Deep-ocean mineral resources – UN controls the International Seabed Authority (ISA) which monitors private exploitation of sea floor resources (most contentious issue) 4. Arbitration of disputes – UN Law of Sea tribunal will arbitrate any disputes in the treaty or disputes concerning ownership rights II. What Characteristics Do Coastal Waters Exhibit? a. Coastal waters – are those relatively shallow-water areas that adjoin continents or islands b. Directly influenced by processes that occur on or near land c. Salinity i. Freshwater runoff from the continents generally lowers the salinity of coastal regions compared to the open ocean ii. Runoff, mainly due to melting snow and ice, peaks in summer iii. Prevailing offshore winds can increase the salinity if they are dry. It evaporates coastal waters increases salinity, creating a halocline iv. Tidal mixing of freshwater and seawater reduces salinity creating an isohaline d. Temperature i. High and low latitude coastal waters are isothermal (same heat) ii. Midlatitudes are warmest in late summer and coolest in the winter iii. Strong Thermocline
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iv. Summer 1. high temp creates thin surface layer 2. vertical mixing deepening the thermocline v. Winter 1. cooling increases density causing it to sink vi. Mixing from strong winds may drive the thermoclines deeper and even mix the entire water column, producing isothermal conditions vii. Tidal currents can also cause considerable vertical mixing in shallow coastal waters e. Coastal Geostrophic Currents i.
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