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Speech Final Exam Review natasha

Speech Final Exam Review natasha - Speech Final Exam Review...

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Speech Final Exam Review Ch.1 Types of Feedback Positive-smile applause, tells speaker message received and should continue Negative- frown, boo, tells speaker something wrong and need adjustment Person centered- “You’re sweet” Message centered-“what’s that number?” Low monitored- spontaneous and totally honest High monitored- carefully constructed response to serve purpose Supportive- encourage, confirms persons worth Critical- judge another person/evaluate Ethnocentrism: see others through our cultural filters, often distortions of our behaviors, evaluate beliefs of own culture more positively than another Stereotype: fixed impression of group where we perceive specific indivs Attribution Stereotypes Overattribution-attribute too much of person’s behavior b/c of characteristic (she’s a woman) Language Fallacies Weasel words-meanings are difficult to pin down…help, virtually Euphemisms-make neg things sound better Jargon- specialized language of professional class Gobbledygook- overly complex language that overwhelms listener instead of communicating meaning Allnes: forgetting language symbolizes only portion of reality, never whole Indiscrimination: fail to distinguish between similar but diff people, objects, events Indexing: mental subscript that indentifies each indiv by a nickname or a certain thing Polarization: tendency to look at the world in terms of opposites and to describe it in extremes, good v. bad Ingrating nonverbal and verbal messages Accent or emphasize through raising voice, eye contact Complement by smiling when tell story
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Contradict by winking or crossing your fingers to show you’re lying Regulate when pursing lips, raise hand , say um to show you still have something to say Repeat message by jerking head while saying lets go Substitute with hand gestures Ch. 7 5 Stages of Conversation Opening- greeting, opening line in convo Feedforward-give the other person general idea of what convo will focus on, give preface to topic, estimates receptivity Business-substance of convo, exchange of speaker and listener roles Feedback-Reflect on convo to signal that business completed Closing- goodbye, summarize convo, state desire to end convo, refer to future interaction Speaker Cues Turn maintaining cues: enable person to maintain role of speaker by vocalizing pauses to show more said, audible inhaling, avoiding eye contact Turn yielding: shows speaker is finished and whishes to exchange role of speaker for listener, intonation, pausing at length, asking questions. Disclaimer Types Hedging: separate self from the message so if listeners reject message they won’t reject you “I may be wrong here but…” Credentialing: argues that you should not be disqualified for what you are saying “don’t get me wrong, I’m not homophobic” Sin license: ask listener to deviate in some way from normally accepted
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