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Unformatted text preview: Econ History 111A-1/11/11 d. Characteristics and Quality of the Labor Force 1. Endentured Servants Gallenson Finds Indentured Servants are: • Male • Late teens/early 20s • Peak of productive ability-by your late teens and 20s you are extremely productive, England bore the costs of raising you and then when you were old enough to work you shipped off to work in the colonies • Very literate overall Market for indentured servants he finds to be a “good” one. Different lengths of indenture for different individuals. More productive had shorter periods of indenture. Ended(indentured servitude) • Passage became less expensive • Increase in earning of British • Families in New World were able to help family members buy passage • Slavery was cheaper at the end of the period than in the beginning(by eve of Revolution) Gallenson developed a model that explains decline of indentured servitude Set up: 3 sources of labor 1. Free white labor 2. Europeans willing to be indentured 3. African labor that can be enslaved SEE CHART 1 2. Religious Dissenters(Calvinist Reformers, Puritans) (Griswald 1934) Weber(1864-1920) – linked protestants and capitalism • They believed in materialism and said to work hard and do well and that they would be rewarded in heaven • Resulted in more productive workforce In colonies, disproportionate number of Protestants iv. Economic Activity in Colonies a. Agriculture(about 85% of labor force)-each individual produced enough to feed family and each region specialized in a cash crop-Southern Colonies-Tobacco-Once mastered proper curing and handling, England no longer had to import this from Spain-Tobacco kills land because it sucks fertility, but in the colonies they could keep moving west to new land and getting better and better crops-Large plantations with most slaves were most profitable-Before 1620, few thousand lbs, by Revolution >100 million pounds, which was about $4 million in export earnings. If you look at share of GDP, that’s 309 Billion dollars in exports per year-There was also Cotton indigo and rice introduced, but not as big-Middle Colonies – Good grain cultivation-Slavery was rarely used because the crops cultivated didn’t need slave labor-Wheat most important-Corn, rye, and barley No economies of scale in these crops-New England-Practice subsistence farming (only grew enough for themselves)-soil was rocky, it was very cold, and as a result Indian corn often grew well. Small yields, small scale-As a result shipping and fishing were important-Homecraft employment common Economic growth in Agriculture primarily extensive, not intensive growth. • Cut increase production by cutting down trees and fencing • Markets were good in each region. Technological change was minimal o Total Factor Profuctivity (TFP) is intensive growth o Gallman conjectures: early 18 th century about .14%, late 18 th century .8% o Labor Productivity in all but tobacco was about .3% per year from 1800-1850 o Ball and Walton (1976) revised numbers, and see about .1%-.2% growth in total Ball and Walton (1976) revised numbers, and see about ....
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course ECN 111a taught by Professor Parman during the Spring '10 term at UC Davis.
- Spring '10