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Matlin Chapter Reviews

Matlin Chapter Reviews - chapter reviews from psychology...

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Katherine Stewart 5827 Matlin Chapter Review 1 Midterm Extra Credit 1. cognition – mental activities involving the acquisition, storage, transformation, and use of knowledge cognitive psychology – a synonym for cognition; also, the cognitive approach to psychology as a theoretical approach that emphasizes people’s knowledge and their mental processes My ideal career is to be a ballet dancer. Psychology is related to this because as a dancer you need to express yourself in a way that will make emotional connections with the audience members, simply through visual stimuli. 2. Approaches to psychology with respect to their emphasis on thinking: a. William James’s approach – William James took a theoretical approach to understanding psychological experiences. His research emphasized the understanding of thinking on an everyday level and theorized about the mechanisms that work to produce everyday cognitive processes. He emphasized that the human mind is both active and inquiring. b. behaviorism – Behaviorism was an approach to psychology that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century and focused only on objective and observable physical reactions to stimuli within an environment. Behaviorism emphasized “thinking” less and focused more on the physical and observable phenomena outside of the brain. Behaviorists believed that it was impossible to objectively observe mental processes any other way. c. gestalt psychology – Gestalt psychology emphasizes that humans have basic tendencies to actively organize what we see and that our brain is designed to pick out certain patterns. This method of psychology characterized thinking as a unified conscious experience rather than individual components of input being individually processed by our brains. d. Frederic Bartlett’s approach – Bartlett proposed that human memory is an active, constructive process, in which we interpret and transform the information we encounter. He researched how we construct memory, and emphasized a schema-based approach to thinking. e. the cognitive approach – The cognitive approach put more emphasis on all aspects of cognition rather than isolating certain cognitive behaviors. These aspects include attention, memory, language, concept formation, and problem solving. The cognitive approach took a more holistic approach to psychology than did behaviorism, and it was triggered by a growing interest in fields such as linguistics, human
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memory, developmental psychology, and the information-processing approach. 3. ecological validity – a principal stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied experimental control – the part of the scientific approach that leaves all variables controlled and stable so as to be able to test the affects of changing only one variable a. Ebbinghaus’s approach to memory – This method of research was highly controlled and also very artificial. It did not use the ecological
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