ESYS103 LECTURE NOTES

ESYS103 LECTURE NOTES - WEEK 2 FRIDAY: 4/8/11 guest...

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WEEK 2 FRIDAY: 4/8/11 guest lecturer Ralph Keeling CARBON CYCLE AND GLOBAL WARMING - mauna loa observatory - mauna loa record: there was a rising trend and each point at the monthly average from 1960-1970’s shows that there is a curve (keeling curve) - the curve motivated the growth of research - PERSEPCTIVE IN THE LATE 1970’S - Predicted global warming for a doubling of atmostpheric CO2 o 1.5 to 4.5 deg C (charney report, 1979) - additional factors recognized o 1methan, nitrous oxide, and CFC’s add to anthropogenic greenhouse ffect o 2. Aerosols cause counteracting cooling o 3. Oceans absorb heat, slowing the warming -“we may not be given a warming until the CO2 loading is such that an appreciable climate change in inevitable” - charney report gives us a warming - PERSPECTIVE TODAY - extent of sea ice in the arctic ocean. Ice edge is melting - Greenland is melting and losing mass and an accelerating pace - CONTROLS ON ATMOSTPHERIC CO2 INCREASE - Land plants - Oceans : CO2+CO3^2- + H2O = 2HCO3- - Most organisms in the ocean who have shells and build shells have a hard time doing so - Direct effect of CO2 on organisms in the marine ecosystem - Coral reefs seem to be very vulnerable to CO2 as well as warming - Plants could be fertilized by CO2 so it could be good - Ecostyems might be taking up CO2 because the climate is getting warmer and warmer weather = more plant growth and it is a possibility o Does not mean it is for sure o Fertilization effect ? ? ?? - give it both nitrogen and CO2 way for plants to grow more and faster - the proportion of the CO2 in the land and ocean - not clear whether the ocean or the land is in the major sink process of taking up the CO2 - by clearing land, for agriculture, we are helping release CO2 into the atmosphere - fossil fuel burning removes oxygen from the air - ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION - Atmospheric co2: 380 ppm (parts per million) - 10 years of fossil fuel burning: 30 ppm - atmospheric O2: 20.95% - 10 years of fossil fuel burning
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- so can we actually measure the change in oxygen ? of a small change of nitrogen and oxygen in the air? WEEK 3 MONDAY LECTURE 4/11/11 - political cartoon of implications of usage in energy commentary - economic link that really gets to people - key questions: 1. What role does energy play in the global economy 2. How much energy does the us use and how much does the world use 3. What country uses the most - physics today article by paul wife: - coal energy and industrialization allowed the market to sky upward - to increase productivity and provide food as well - energy is tied to growing food and managing /delivering water, heating, lighting, building power. - We don’t use work anymore, we use power - Prices are completely tied to the price to oil (consumer price index) - Energy crisis determine what we pay for and it is the worlds largest economical sector - Recession and price of oil = linked, when price of oil spikes up, we get a recession ex: 1973. Oil prices came back - Double dip recession? When energy costs are high, its hard
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ESYS103 LECTURE NOTES - WEEK 2 FRIDAY: 4/8/11 guest...

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