NPB 161 - lecture2

NPB 161 - lecture2 - *=will be on midterm many diferent...

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Sheet1 Page 1 *=will be on midterm many diferent levels of analysis In vivo -in the whole intact organism How is it that the right numbersof neurons are made? connected? Use culturing techniques to study individual cells in absence of their neighbors, which may provide important signals. What we really want to understand is - what happens at individual synapses (.5 micro in diameter) Thousands of synapses at ends of dendrites in the cerebral cortex - (how do they specify?) What kinds of techniques can be used to answer your scientific questions. Formula for experimentation When, Why and How is it happening over time (1.Description) 1) Histology 2) Labelling individual neurons - their dendrites 3) Labeling neural connections - tracing technique to figure out what other reigions of the brain is connected to. 4) Electrophysiology - sticking an electrode and observe any responses in any other parts of the brain. 5)mRNA localizations - use in situ hybridization 6)**Protein localization*** - use immunocytochemistry - to look for proteins - in the right place at the right time, doesn't mean it m 7)Imaging Experiments (living neurons) - using microspectroscopy 8) Electron microscopy (2.Perturbation Experiments) 1)Loss of Function a) abalate pathway b)function-blocking anti-bodies c)knockouts d)mouse mutants e)human disease 2)gain of Function a) overexpression b) add factor [protein] Pre-natal tissues start specification at 25 days, at 100 days, develops sulceis The relative size at 25 days to 9 months, is tremendous. What's happened over the 15 years - we cannot culture human cells well, but we can culture animal models
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NPB 161 - lecture2 - *=will be on midterm many diferent...

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