foundations of testing - Methods of testing Foundations of...

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1 Foundations of Testing Methods of testing ring2 Norm-referenced tests circle6 Normed on a particular population sample to allow comparisons circle6 Statistically/psychometrically derived ring2 Criterion-referenced tests circle6 May or may not be standardized circle6 Based on predetermined/developmental expectations ring2 Alternative assessment circle6 Determines what the client can/can’t do (like criterion-referenced) circle6 Based on contextualized or real-life stimuli Norm-referenced tests ring2 Also called standardized tests (misnomer) ring2 Important psychometric information related to norm-referenced tests: circle6 Test development/item construction circle6 Administration and scoring procedures (standardized) circle6 Normative sample circle6 Reliability and validity Psychometrics ring2 Theory and technique of educational and psychological measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality ring2 Validity = test measures what it says it measures ring2 Reliability = test results are consistent, replicable
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2 Validity ring2 Construct circle6 The degree to which the test measures the theoretical construct it is intended to measure ring2 Content circle6 Appropriateness of the items, completeness of the item sample, and the way in which the items assess the content ring2 Criterion-related circle6 Concurrent ring2 To what degree a person’s score may be used to estimate performance on another measure at present circle6 Predictive ring2 Same as concurrent, but relative to future performance Reliability ring2 Test-retest circle6 Stability over time and administrations ring2 Split-half circle6 Internal consistency; e.g., odd-numbered items and correlated against even-numbered items ring2 Rater circle6 Intra-rater ring2 Consistency when same person administers test more than once circle6 Inter-rater ring2 Consistency when more than one person administers the test The normal distribution ring2 Theoretically depicts the performance of a sample of people on any measure ring2 Mean = average for the sample ring2 Standard deviation = measure of variability from the mean ring2 The use of means and s.d. helps
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