Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Intro to Oceanography Chapter 8 Waves moving...

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Intro to Oceanography : Chapter 8 Waves – moving energy traveling along the interface between ocean and atmosphere I. What Causes Waves? a. Disturbing force – the energy that causes ocean waves to form b. Three Interfaces i. Air-water interface – ocean waves – the movement of air across the ocean surface ii. Air-air interface – atmospheric waves – the movement of different air masses, which are often represented by ripple like clouds in the sky iii. Water-water interface – internal waves – the movement of water of different densities c. Splash waves – mass movement into the ocean such as calving icebergs d. Seismic sea waves or tsunami - Sea floor movement such as underwater avalanches can create large waves e. Tides – gravitational pull of the moon and the Sun f. Wake – human activities that cause ocean waves such as a ship II. How Do Waves Move? a. Waves are energy in motion and transmit energy by means of cyclic movement through matter b. Progressive waves – waves that oscillate uniformly and progress or ravel without breaking i. Longitudinal waves - push-pull waves – particles that vibrate in the same direction as the energy is traveling ii. Transverse waves – side to side waves – energy travels as right angles iii. Both are called body waves because they transfer energy through a body of matter iv. Orbital waves (interface waves) – waves at the ocean surface because it involves components of both longitudinal and transverse waves III. What Characteristics Do Waves Possess? a. Wave Terminology i. Crests – succession of high parts ii. Troughs – succession of low parts iii. Still water level – halfway between the crests and the troughs or zero energy level (no waves) iv. Wave height (H) – the vertical distance between a crest and a trough v. Wavelength (L) – the horizontal distance between any two corresponding points on a successive waveforms vi. Wave steepness – the ratio of wave height to wavelength vii. If the wave steepness exceeds 1/7, the wave breaks because the wave is too steep to support itself
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viii. Wave period (T) – the time it takes one full wave – one wavelength – to pass a fixed position (range from 6-16 seconds) ix. Frequency (ƒ) – the number of wave crests passing a fixed location per unit of time and is the inverse of the period b. Circular Orbital Motion i. Circular Orbital Motion – as the wave travels, the water passes the energy along by moving in a circle ii. Circular orbits have a diameter equal to the wave height iii. Grows smaller the deeper it goes until it becomes so small that movement is negligible (wave base) iv. Wave base – one half of the wavelength (L/2) c. Deep-Water Waves i. Deep-water waves – if the water depth (d) is greater than the wave
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Chapter 8 - Intro to Oceanography Chapter 8 Waves moving...

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