428ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION TO THE CARBONYL GROUPThe preparation of 2-butanone is completed as follows:17.5Chloral is trichloroethanal, . Chloral hydrate is the addition product of chloral and water.17.6Methacrylonitrile is formed by the dehydration of acetone cyanohydrin, and thus has the structureshown.17.7The overall reaction isHCl is a strong acid and, when dissolved in ethanol, transfers a proton to ethanol to give ethylox-onium ion. Thus, we can represent the acid catalyst as the conjugate acid of ethanol.The first three steps correspond to acid-catalyzed addition of ethanol to the carbonyl group to
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