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Dolbier HW Solutions 334 - 428 ALDEHYDES AND KETONES...

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428 ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION TO THE CARBONYL GROUP The preparation of 2-butanone is completed as follows: 17.5 Chloral is trichloroethanal, . Chloral hydrate is the addition product of chloral and water. 17.6 Methacrylonitrile is formed by the dehydration of acetone cyanohydrin, and thus has the structure shown. 17.7 The overall reaction is HCl is a strong acid and, when dissolved in ethanol, transfers a proton to ethanol to give ethylox- onium ion. Thus, we can represent the acid catalyst as the conjugate acid of ethanol. The fi rst three steps correspond to acid-catalyzed addition of ethanol to the carbonyl group to
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