chap 6 II

chap 6 II - 1. Distinguish between exergonic and enderognic...

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1. Distinguish between exergonic and enderognic reactions. These reactions are differentiated based on their free-energy changes. Exergonic reactions simply release energy, whereas endergonic reactions require energy. Exergonic reactions occur spontaneously, whereas endergonic reactions are not spontaneous. 2. Describe the relationship between equilibrium and free energy change for a reaction Everything in the universe, to an extent, is attempting to acquire stability by reaching equilibrium. At equilibrium, there is no net change in the system. The free energy increases in these systems when a reaction is pushed away from equilibrium; it can occur only with the help of an outside source. These reactions are thus spontaneous. Free energy decreases when the process is shifting towards equilibrium and thus it occurs spontaneously and can perform work. 3. List three chemical components of ATP. To what major class of macromolecules does it belong? Adenosine triphosphate is compiled of a few chemical components. Firstly, it has phosphate groups, which are simply functional groups. In addition, there is Adenine, which is a nucleic acid. Lastly, it is made up of a ribose, which is the sugar component of RNA. 4. How are endergonic reactions carried out by a cell? Endergonic reactions are a main component of cellular work carried out by ATP. Endergonic reactions absorb free energy from its surroundings. This occurs because the reaction requires energy in order to activate and perform. 5. In general, how does ATP transfer energy from one reaction to another? Catabolic pathways (exergonic reactions) provide the energy for the endergonic process of making ATP, especially cellular respiration. During the ATP cycle energy passes during its transfer from catabolic to anabolic pathways. The ATP cycle is the addition of a phosphate to the ADP, which in turn recreates an ATP molecule ready for
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chap 6 II - 1. Distinguish between exergonic and enderognic...

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