1. explain each of the three main Mendelian laws of genetics. The law of segregation refers to the separation of allele pairs during the formation of gametes, so an egg or sperm carries only one allele for each inherited trait. The law of independent assortment states that pairs of alleles for different characters segregate independently of each other in the formation of gametes. In the law of dominance, the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable. 2. what is the purpose of a testcross? How is it set up? In a testcross, an organism expressing the dominant phenotype is bred with a recessive homozygote to determine the genotype of this phenotypically dominant organism. Crossing the organism with an individual expressing the recessive trait is the most efficient way to determine the genotype. The white-flowered parent must be homozygous, then the genotype of the purple-flowered parent can we deduced by observing the phenotypes of the offspring. 3.
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