Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - bonds, and heat is released when hydrogen bonds...

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Chapter 3 8. Describe the structure of a water molecule. Why is it this shape? How does this influence its properties? Two hydrogen atoms are joined to the oxygen atom by a single covalent bond. The structure of this polar molecule is shaped like a ‘V’, with opposite charges on opposite ends. The numerous properties of water stem from attractions between these polar molecules. 9. Briefly describe the emergent properties of water that result from hydrogen bonds. Cohesion functions due to hydrogen bonding, which holds the substance together. This contributes to transport of water against gravity in plants. Water has a high specific heat resulting from hydrogen bonding; heat must be absorbed in order to break hydrogen
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Unformatted text preview: bonds, and heat is released when hydrogen bonds form. High heat of vaporization is another characteristic of hydrogen bonding, which must be broken before the molecules can exit from the liquid. Hydrogen bonding also explains why water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid. 10. Explain the function of buffers- what are they, and how do they work? Buffers are substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution. The presence of buffers aid biological fluids in resisting changes to their own pH when acids or bases are present. A buffer emits hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and gives hydrogen ions to the solution when they have been used up....
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