Bio 10 II

Bio 10 II - 1) The Calvin Cycle, which occurs in the...

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1) The Calvin Cycle, which occurs in the stroma, is the reaction by which NADPH is oxidized and a 3 carbon sugar is produced which can go on to create glucose for glycolysis, be created into cellulose for structuring, or into sucrose for transport. The Calvin cycle fixes 3 inorganic CO 8 molecules and joins them to 3 Ribulose 1,5 – bisphosphate (RuBP). This becomes an unstable 6 carbon molecule that breaks down into 6 3-carbon phosphoglycerates. These are then phosphorylated by ATP and then reduced by NADPH to form 6 organic PGAL. However, only one of these is allowed to travel out into the cell to be used because the remaining 5 3-carbon molecules are necessary to restart the cycle with 3 5-carbon molecules, after phosphorylation. 2) Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase / oxygenase is the enzyme that binds CO 8 to RuBP. It has 8 large subunits and 8 small subunits with 8 active sites. There are many ways to active Rubisco and less at night. O 2 and CO 8 are competitive inhibitors of Rubisco, which lead to the necessity of C3, C4, and CAM reactions to prevent as little inefficiency as possible. The carboxylase / oxygenase name is appropriate because Rubisco can either do carbon fixation with RuBP or oxygen can be incorporate to break
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Bio 10 II - 1) The Calvin Cycle, which occurs in the...

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