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# ~WRD0000 - INTRODUCTION In chemical engineering,the...

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INTRODUCTION In chemical engineering ,the measurements of the flow rates in pipes has its major importance. There are several devices used for this purpose such as a pitot tube, orifice plate, and venturi. These devices are basically used to measure the pressure drop by the use of a manometer and thus converting the pressure to flow rates by different equations. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND for calculating the flow rate , each one of these devices has a its own formula: 1) PITOT TUBE : used to measure the point velocity V 1 = 2 2 3 ( ) / p p - ρ ------------------------------------------------(1) where p: pressure drop f : density of flowing fluid 2) ORIFICE : used to measure the flow rate of fluids Q= CAo p p Ao A 2 1 2 1 ( ) ( ( / ) - - ρ 2 --------------------------------------------- (2) C=0.62 --------------- (3) 3) VENTURI : Q CAo p p Ao A = - - 2 1 2 1 2 ( ) ( / ) ρ ------------------------------------------------ (4) C=0.98 ---------------(5)

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PROCEDURE The pump tank was filled with water. Then , the manometer was connected to the desired flow meter. Then, the pump was started against the discharge valve. The flow rate was measured by timing the level rise in the calibration tank and five measurements were taken for each flow meter. This procedure was repeated for the other two devices . RESULTS table 1: pitot tube ,Q, V 1 ,V 2 , P run Q m 3 /s P Pa V1(exp) m/s V2(th) m/s error % Re 1 5.4*10e-4 274.4 0.68 0.74 8.1 21556 2 6.9*10e- 4 392 0.87 0.88 1.14 27579 3 9.34*10e- 4 676.2 1.18 1.16 1.7 37406 4 9.75*10e- 4 764.4 1.2 1.23 2.44 38040 5 1.04*10e- 3 882 1.3 1.33 2.26 41210 table 2 : orifice ,Q EXP , Q theo. , error, ∆Ρ run Q exp m 3 /s ∆Ρ Pa Q Theo.
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