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che-309F2-lab report - Abstract The main objective of this...

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Abstract: The main objective of this experiment is to measure the pressure drop through four different types of packed beds (Sand bed, Glass Bed, Rashing Ring Bed and berl - Saddles bed). Pressure drop across the packing is measured with the help of pressure taps at the top and bottom of each packed column, which lead to manometer. Water is our fluid that flows through the columns. Its flow rate was measured by collecting specific amount of volume for some period of time. By controlling the isolation and control valves the experiment for the Sand, Glass, and Rashing Ring beds was run five times. Whereas, it was run once for Berl Saddles Bed. In this experiment many variables have been calculated for each packing material and summarized by table 1&2 in result section. For example, shape factor, equivalent sphere diameter, packed bed Reynolds’s number, flow rate and superficial velocity … etc were determined. Also, the values of (∆P/L) & f p have been calculated theoretically and experimentally for all backed beds and the average error found to be respectively: 21.633 % 231.47% for Sand bed 21.73% 85.01 % for glass bed 172.46% 88.589 % for Rashing Ring Bed 35.246 % 98.75 % for Berl Saddles bed However, we found that the plot of f p (theoretically) vs. Re p as straight line and with slope= 150 and intercept =1.75, which exactly similar to Ergun’s equation model. 1
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Introduction: Many process fluid flow operations involve porous media-flow in filters, packed bed catalytic reactor, absorption, desorption, and distillation units. Other examples of porous media flows involve environmental flows are flow of petroleum, natural gas, and water in underground reservoirs. Also it is interest to mention that plant use flow in pours media for the transport of nutrients and disposal of waste products (3:445). Packed bed columns are heavily used in process industries for gas liquid contacting. The majority of these are operated counter-currently. The liquid phase falls downwards because of gravity, while the gas phase moves upwards through the column because of imposed pressure gradient (4:1). However, flow in packed bed tends, in general, to approach more closely flow around objects than flow through channels, and interstitial velocity also tend to be higher. Packed bed models are often based on friction factors in a similar fashion to the way flow in conduits were modeled. 3:455) An understanding of flow through in packed beds is important in the study of fluidization and sedimentation. Tow fluids may flow simultaneously as in the absorption of a component in a gas by a liquid in a packed bed tower. In the present experiment, we treat only the flow of a single homogeneous fluid. Pressure drop through the packed bed is an important parameter and a significant pressure drop can also cause large undesired change in the partial pressure of the reacting gas in the column if a gas – liquid reaction is also taking place. (3:16) Theoretical Background: Values of Reynolds’s number are important in this expriment and by them we can determin if the fow of lquid is turblent or laminar. As a result of that the frictio factor “ f p can be determined as follow: 2
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