Cambridge-Yield-Lecture (1) - Chapter 3: Plasticity Tests...

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Chapter 3: Plasticity
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Common tests used to determine the monotonic strength of metals. (a) Uniaxial tensile test. (b) Upsetting test. (c) Three-point bending test. (d) Plane-strain tensile test. (e) Plane-strain compression (Ford) test. (f) Torsion test. (g) Biaxial test. Tests for Mechanical Strength of Materials
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A servohydraulic universal testing  machine linked to a computer. (Courtesy  of MTS Systems Corp.) Mechanical Testing: Servohydraulic Machine
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Stress–strain curves  for AISI 1040 steel  subjected to different heat  treatments; curves obtained from tensile  tests. Stress-Strain Curves at Different Heat Treatments
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Idealized shapes of uniaxial stress–strain  curve. (a) Perfectly plastic. (b)  Ideal elastoplastic. (c) Ideal  elastoplastic with linear work- hardening. (d) Parabolic work- hardening ( σ = σ + K ε n ). Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve
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Ludwik-Hollomon equation Plasticity Voce equation Johnson-Cook equation
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Schematic representation of the  change in Poisson’s ratio as the  deformation regime changes from  elastic to plastic. True Stress and True Strain Curve
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True- and engineering-stress– strain curves for AISI 4140 hot- rolled steel. R. A. is reduction in  area. Stress-Strain Curve
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Engineering- (or nominal-) stress–strain curves (a)  without and (b) with a yield point. Engineering Stress and Engineering Strain
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Tensile specimen being tested; arrows show onset  of necking. Tensile tests
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Log  d σ /d ε versus log  ε for stainless steel AISI  302. (Adapted with  permission from A. S. de S. e Silva and S.  N. Monteiro , Metalurgia-ABM , 33 (1977) 417.) Work hardening vs. Strain
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Correction factor for necking as a function  of strain in neck, ln( A 0/ A ), minus  strain at necking,  ε u . (Adapted  with permission from W. J.  McGregor Tegart,  Elements of  Mechanical Metallurgy  (New York:  MacMillan, 1964), p. 22.) Necking Stress–strain curves for Fe– 0.003% C alloy wire, deformed  to increasing strains by drawing; each curve  is started at the strain  corresponding to the prior wire-drawing reduction.  (Courtesy of H. J. Rack)
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(a) Effect of strain  rate on the stress–strain  curves for AISI 1040 steel. (b)  Strain-rate changes during  tensile test. Four strain rates are  shown: 10 1, 10 2, 10 3, and  10 4 s 1. Strain Rate Effects
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(a) Compression specimen between  parallel platens. (b) Length  inhomogeneity in specimen. Plastic Deformation in Compressive Testing
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(engineering and true)  curves for 70–30 brass in  compression. (b) Change of shape of  specimen and barreling. Stress-Strain Curve for Compression
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Cambridge-Yield-Lecture (1) - Chapter 3: Plasticity Tests...

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