Cambridge-Yield-Lecture (1)

# Cambridge-Yield-Lecture (1) - Chapter 3 Plasticity Tests...

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Chapter 3: Plasticity

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Common tests used to determine the monotonic strength of metals. (a) Uniaxial tensile test. (b) Upsetting test. (c) Three-point bending test. (d) Plane-strain tensile test. (e) Plane-strain compression (Ford) test. (f) Torsion test. (g) Biaxial test. Tests for Mechanical Strength of Materials
A servohydraulic universal testing  machine linked to a computer. (Courtesy  of MTS Systems Corp.) Mechanical Testing: Servohydraulic Machine

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Stress–strain curves  for AISI 1040 steel  subjected to different heat  treatments; curves obtained from tensile  tests. Stress-Strain Curves at Different Heat Treatments
Idealized shapes of uniaxial stress–strain  curve. (a) Perfectly plastic. (b)  Ideal elastoplastic. (c) Ideal  elastoplastic with linear work- hardening. (d) Parabolic work- hardening ( σ = σ + K ε n ). Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve

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Ludwik-Hollomon equation Plasticity Voce equation Johnson-Cook equation
Schematic representation of the  change in Poisson’s ratio as the  deformation regime changes from  elastic to plastic. True Stress and True Strain Curve

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True- and engineering-stress– strain curves for AISI 4140 hot- rolled steel. R. A. is reduction in  area. Stress-Strain Curve
Engineering- (or nominal-) stress–strain curves (a)  without and (b) with a yield point. Engineering Stress and Engineering Strain

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Tensile specimen being tested; arrows show onset  of necking. Tensile tests
Log  d σ /d ε versus log  ε for stainless steel AISI  302. (Adapted with  permission from A. S. de S. e Silva and S.  N. Monteiro , Metalurgia-ABM , 33 (1977) 417.) Work hardening vs. Strain

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Correction factor for necking as a function  of strain in neck, ln( A 0/ A ), minus  strain at necking,  ε u . (Adapted  with permission from W. J.  McGregor Tegart,  Elements of  Mechanical Metallurgy  (New York:  MacMillan, 1964), p. 22.) Necking Stress–strain curves for Fe– 0.003% C alloy wire, deformed  to increasing strains by drawing; each curve  is started at the strain  corresponding to the prior wire-drawing reduction.  (Courtesy of H. J. Rack)
(a) Effect of strain  rate on the stress–strain  curves for AISI 1040 steel. (b)  Strain-rate changes during  tensile test. Four strain rates are  shown: 10 1, 10 2, 10 3, and  10 4 s 1. Strain Rate Effects

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(a) Compression specimen between  parallel platens. (b) Length  inhomogeneity in specimen. Plastic Deformation in Compressive Testing
(engineering and true)  curves for 70–30 brass in  compression. (b) Change of shape of  specimen and barreling. Stress-Strain Curve for Compression

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Cambridge-Yield-Lecture (1) - Chapter 3 Plasticity Tests...

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