common_v_alexander - COMMONWEATTE v. ALEXAII-DER' Pe. 3 19...

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Unformatted text preview: COMMONWEATTE v. ALEXAII-DER' Pe. 3 19 A C i te a s, P & .S uP er.,3{6 -2d 3 19 ssenting) : CO M f t I O NW EALTH the P residenr J udrr. lrslature p rohibirrd ndl t raf f icking ; 1. ts o r n arCotic d rug.r r efer t o t wo d if f €r:. T hat c onclusion. 'e t he p roblem p ur r . :; f o r i f t he l eg ish . bit n ot o nly " selling*'hy d id i t n ot p ro. rl,v f or " selling" b rrt as J udge H offnr;rn c re. c a nnot j oin t hc his c onclusion t hri gic a nd t he r ulc:i o f it i s t hereforc c lc:rr l ' selling' d angcrorrt roscribed a ctiviticr," are " separate a crili. but o nly o ne i s " pru, ribed" c annot n lurtr, , a ct" ; i t m ust n lc:ttr. ou u 'ill b e s uirjectt o the l egislatttre o ntit. e, t he c otlrts c :ltllr(rl of PennsYlvania V .;, ' "serious b odily i njury" f or p urposes o f statutory o ffense o f a ggravated a ssauit' even t hough v ictim w as n ot f orced t o spend e stended s tay i n h ospital' 1 8 P a'C' Appellant' s t eYe A L€x AN O E R ' Sttperior C ourt o f P ennsylvauia' Oct' 2 3, 1 9i5' o f A PPeal Petition f or A llorvance Gruted D ec. B tt, 1 g?5. i n t he C ourt Defendant w as c onvicted P leas, P hiladelphia C ottnty' of C o.*on S ection'a t } Iarch irt"i O ,,rttton,C riminal N 1 573'E drvard B ' R osen;;;ti"", 1 97'1, o' a a ssault' nd h e a pi.tg, i .' o f a ggravated o N o' 1 290' c' Th. i upt'ior C ourt' r."iia. h eld t hat t Si+, P rice' J " ['J.r-'t.tr", r eceivedb lorv t o f ace r vith *ft... " t.t. b oth e yes'{ rac.ilt"i r it, r vhiih b iackened s titches t o c lose a nd r equired i"t.a " tt., i njuries.s us.o,i., , "orrnaso n f ace' h ead b odily i njury" ,"i".a . "tt,ituted " serious o f a ggrafo, n urpor., o f s tatutoryo ffense e videncew as s uflicient ,'li.'J"r."ut,, a nd b odily i nto P rove i ntent t o c auses erious an m jury u nder c ircumstances anifesting h uv alue o f estreme i ndifferencet o t he m a n l i fe . A{firmed. ttion t o m ake c lc:rr must n ot P reten(l t (' te. T he s tatute l tcr" , h oPe t he l egishtrrrc t t q 'as p resentetl o n n'l InsufficiencYo f t lrt' c tt' an e rrest o f j url5mcnt' v t rial' S ee C ortn'r' 'a'SuPer. 2 13. 3 35 . !t':'l v. S tate,6? I drrhol Slj I : P eoPle u '' O t'Ycr' a.S.3d 9 S7 ( lst f i.:ll' LermenY,2 13 O r'-ctt' which t reat " trulllt'l' iefinitious o f " sellio6' a f iled o pinion Spaeth,J ., d issented nd f man a nd C ercone' J J" in , ut i .h H of joined. 5) L t. C ri m l n a l a w € = l 144' 13(3, ( l)' 2 S.A.$ S2 301, 702(a) See P ublication \ Yords a nd P hrases for o ther j udieial c oustrucrionsa nd definitious. 3. A ssault a nd B atterY € =92(l) Evidence r vas s ufficient i o p rove i ntent t o c ause t he s erious b odilf i njury s ustained b y v ictim, r vho s uffered s erious a nd extensive i njuries t o f ace f rom d efendant's single p unch, u nder c ircumsiances r nar'ifesting a n e xtreqle i ndifference t o 1 'alue.o.r human 1 ife, a nd t hus e vidence w as s ullrcient t o s ustain c onviction f or a ggravated assault. 1 8 P a.C.S.A. $ S 2 301, 2 702(a')(l)' Vincent J . Z iccardi, D efender, J ohn \ V' Packel, C hief, A ppeals D iv', A sst' P ublic f Defender,P hiladelphia,or a ppeilant' Steven H . G oldblatt, A sst' D ist' A tty'' a pf Chief, A ppeals D iv., P hiladelphia,or pe11ee. a nd J Before W -\TKINS, P resident udge' C ERCONE' H OFFTTAN, JACOBS, 'PRtCe, V AN d er V OORT, a nd S PAETH' II. o f e vidence In r eviervings ufficiency i v ierve videncen l ight Sup.rio, C ourt m ust P R IC E , J udge' a C ommonrvealth'nd g ive most f auorable t o Appellant r vas c hafgedr vith t he : tit: : l r easonabie i Co*rnonrt.Ath b eneft o f a li a ssault'l H e r vas t ried b etore inferences risingt herefrom' a s it"ggr"u"t.d H th-e- onorable E dri'ard B ' R osenberg' f ound g uilty ting r vithout a j ury, a nd r vas 2. A ssaulta nd B attery€ =54 t he d enial o f t o f ace o.,il"y 6 , l g74' F ollowing Where v ictim r eceivedb lorv h e r vas s enh is appellant'sP ost-trial m otions' b rvith c iosedf ist w hich b lackened oth i m onths.n tenced t o n ine t o t wenty'three eyes, f ractured h is n ose a nd r equired t c ontends hat the c ounty p rison. A ppellant o siitchest o c ioseo lher r vounds n h is f ace' t s ustaln ne l the e vidence vas i nsufficientt o head i njuries s ustainedc onstituted" prot o t his c onconviction. W e f ind n o m erit tracted l os o , i mpairmento f t he f unction a t hus tention a nd r vill, t herefore, f f irm' of a b odily m ember o r o rgan" a nd ( 1))' $ N 3 34'$ 1 ( 18P a'C'S' 2 ?02(a) P l. A ct o f D ec.6,19?2,'L' 1 482' o' 320 '.t, ,l p" 3{6 A TLANTIC R X?OF"TXR, 2 d S XB.IES ^1 tracted l oss o r i mpairment.of r he f unc-* f l l I t i s f undam.ttb'l t h"t i n r evierving tion- o f a ny b odily m embdr o i o rgan." . w e m ust the s ufficiency o i t he e vidence' ll+, i Ae ar"ne;^6."iin',"T.L:1?82j-rol f avori vierv t he e videncen t he l ight m ost 1 ( 18 P a.C .S $ 2 301). . g ive t he a $ ble t o t he C ommonrvealth' nd t he b enefit o f a li r easonCommonrvealth To s ustain t he c onviction r ve m ust, t herei nf.r.nces a rising t herefrom' C ont' fore, f irst d etermine i f s erious b odily i nju1 16' 2 92 "b1. monwealtho . M cFadden,4 18 P a' a nd s econdly, d etermine i ! a pz t \Iitr'ot' ry o ccurred, A.zd 3 58 ( 1972); C ommorni'ealth pellant i ntended t hat r esult o r a cted s o ( 1.971).' 227 P a.Super.3 '{3, 3 22 A '2d 7 17 t he r equirementso i \ !e t lnd 1 ! recklessly a s t o s atisfy When w e s o v ierv t he e vidence' the s tatute. c onvicmore t han s ufficient t o s ustaint he "i *' ,f ti o n . I I /o"' *-J i-:..J_ t hat s uch t?l T here c an b e n o d oubt t [-e-,{actsr eveal a s-t he v ictim h ere s ustained head i niuries ,**Briefly s tated,.' ltn , o: wl:t n rs a b odily'injurv- A s J udge Nlarch 6 , 1 971, ppellants truck' o H erbert R osenzrveig n t he ";;;iiili;-;;rious n otedi n h is 6 piniont not.nu.liiEiy ciosed f ist, ,, d n ot l ose head. A lthough R osenzrveig id t t he p unch i n t he n ose i s a n a g' ff to "Whether a h consciousness, e w as k nocked b t q ut"ion gravateda ssault ; at{1 a nC s tunned' ' The t ype o f b lorv sround " " np."rrio i mpression r vhich c an b e e asily mpression vhich an e astly i :; of t ittt of f irst a ppellanr a dmittedly d elivered..to.the 'lvhich as nprovokedu ruw.:"""'', ; -tg anslvered. anslvered. A n u nprovoKeq b lolv d eliber-- i.il victim w ould p robablyb est b e d escribed ': a t c lose r ange w rtn s ucn n either ately d elivered ia " sucker p unch" s ince t he v ictim a force t o t he h ead t hat a f racture o t -! jexpected i t n or s arv i t b e-ing d elivered' a bone r esuits, c iearly e vidences i ack o f regard f or t he v alue o { h uman l ife' Further, i t i s w ell k norvn t hat a ny b lorv to t he h ead m ay r esult i n g rave r n1urles' The h ead i s r ecognizeda s t he c entera nd situs f r om w hich s uch f unction a s thought, i ntellect, m emory,u nderstanding and c ontrol o riginate a nd a re c ontrolied' It c ontains t he b ody's m ost v itai o rgans n such a s t he b rain, e ye's, osea nd m ouln' It i s c onsidereda s t he m ost v ital o f a il parts o f t he b ody f or i t i s t he d epository to of t he b ody's c ontrol. I njury o r h arm r - "1 r s g ulr r y o f t h e c r i m e o f a g g r a i mmobilizei he A o er s on the h ead c an d esrroyo r v at ed a s s aulti f h e: entire b ody r educing t he m ost h ealthy i nhuman t o a m ere v egetable' A b lol d e.s to "(l) a ttempts c ause ,9r!9u"1. - ,94i[ livered t o t he h ead a hvays r uns t he n sK jury t o a nother,o r c ausess ucn l nJury u nof c reating s erious h arm t o t he e ffeco intintionally,k norvingly r r ecklessly '. J tiveoess o f t h. l ody' W hen d eiivered -ertr eme 9 der ci rcumstances mal-i-f -9!--r-r8""l iie"' rvith s uch f orce a nd p orverc loser ange t he *:'-- i] indifierenc,e.!-o v alue o f h uman i N o' 3 34' as t o f racture t he n ose. t i s f ortunate P Act o f D ec. 6 , 1 972, 'L' 1 482' I h as n ot r esuited'. t that t otal i ncapacity $ $ I ( 1 8P a .C .S. 2 702(a)(1))' t o s horv t hat s ertous is n ot n ecessary i s d ed efendant b In a ddition," serious b odily i njury" - b odjly i njury r elulted,, ut t hat ' ' T hesep remlses as: fi n e d attemPtedt his o bjectiie. t have l ed t his C ourt t o c oncludehat' u na w hich c reates s uostan"fblodiiy i njury a nd c onditions' der t hese c ircumstances c ausess erltial r isk o f d eath o r w hich l ne Steve A lexander e videnced xtreme d isfi gurement' o r p roous, p ermaient b oth o f R osenz'veig's iil"" ; ;"-'it".*t"to i.y.r, f racturied h is n ose' a nd r equired o n h is ,t , ri,.h., t o c iose t he o ther r vounds a t t he e meri f "... T he v ictim r vas t reated A i g .n.y r vard o f a h ospitaia nd.released' n earby r vitnessed iaxi c ab d river p arked a ppellant i t t. a ttack a nd t estified t hat s truck h im' a nd i w aiked u p t o R osenzrveig' The c ab d river b egan i t hen r valked a rvaY' o n f oot' A p olice o ffiI t o . h"r. a ppeilant a e ventually pprei c er j oined t he c hasea nd ! h endeda PPeilant' ; COMMOITWEALTE v. AtXXAI{DER Po 321 C i l 6 e s. P E .S uper.,3+6 .2d 3 19 A diffeTenc6-1q t he v alue o i h uman i ifQ ,vhen h e a t s idh--ctosel-+asgr-rndlA'ith It o f t he f uncber o r o rgan." 1482,) ,io. 3 3-t, r R o s e n z 1 v e i g ffi s theC ommonrveal thdi dnotproduceevi e dences ufficient t o e stablish ither t he r eq: '*-ts nose.tt o uisite i ntent o r t he o ccurr.ence f s erious The f act t hat t he v ictim w as n ot f orced b bodily i njury. I r eacht his c onclusion oth to s pend a n e xtended s tay i n t he h ospital from m y e -xamination f t he t riai r ecord o does n ot m itigate t he s eriousness o f t he i nand f rom t he l egisiature's ifferentiation d juries. A lso, i t d oes n ot r equire e laborate of a ssault c rimes i n t he P ennsyivania reasoning t o r ecognize t hat t he- i njuries i n* Crimes C ode,A ct o f D ec. 6 , 1 972,e fiective volved h erein c aused a P rotracied l oss o r N June 6 , 1 973, o.33+, 1 8 P .S. $ 1 01e t s eq. ve m ust, t here>usb odily i njui :etermine f a pIt o r a cted s o :equirements f o oubt t hat s uch here s ustained ury. A s J udge t pinion : nose i s a n a g:o b e a q uestion l c an b e e asilY d b lorv d etiberange r vith s uch , f racture o f a 3ncesa i ack o f rf h urnan l ife. that a ny b lorv grave i njuries. r t he c enter a nd r f unction a s , u nderstanding are c ontrolled. )st v ital o rgans ose a nd m outh, rost v ital o f a ll ; t he d epository iury o r h arm t o immobilize t he : m ost h ealthy le. A b iorv d e's r uns t he r isk r t o t he e ffec,Vhen d eiivered , e r c lose r ange it i s f ortunate rot r esulted. I t rv t hat s erious : t hat d efendant Thesep remises rcludet hat, u nand c onditions, ed e xtreme i n- o f " serious b odily i njury" a nd i ntentiorial o r r eckless a ction h ave b een m et. I d isagree a nd r espectfully issent. I n m y v ierv,, d impairment o f rlgrnbsfql--ofg31. t he t unctton o t a _ o ootty The C rimes C oded e{iness everala ssault offenses, t hree o f r vhich a re r elevant t o this c ase: h arassment, imple a ssault,a nd s t hat h e d id n ot t3l A ppeilant c ontends aggravated a ssault.l A p erson i s g uilty o f :end t o c ause s uch s erious i njury t o t he harassmenti f, " rvith i ntent t o h arass,a no . n victim. H orvever,t he r equirements f t he noy, . or a larm a nother p erson: ( 1) h e s atisfiedr vhere,a s i n t his c ase, strikes,s hoves, icks,o r o therrvise ubjects Gr"tu,. a re s k =*$ff". a ppellant c auses s erious b odily i njury him t o p hysical c ontact, o r a ttemPts o r a n e xm f u nder c ircumstances anifesting . " 1 8 P a. threatenst o d o t he s ame i ndifference t o t he v alue o f h uman C.S. 2 709. H arassments a s ummaryo fStr.*. i S H ere t he v ictim s uffered a b roken fense a nd t herefore t he m aximurn p unish)rit.. J*not.. t wo b lack e yes,a nd o ther r voundst o ment i s 9 0 d ays a nd $ 300f ine. 1 8 P a.C'S. -t lthe h ead r eguiring s titches. I n a ddition, S S 1 101a nd 1 105. A p ersoni s g uilt y o i a $the m ethodo f a ppellant's ttack o n t he v ic- simple a ssault i f h e " attemPtst o c auseo r L\ olim f urther r evealse xtremei ndifferencet o intentionally, k norvingiy o r r eckiesslyc austhei v alue o f h uman l ife. T his a ttack' a l- es b odily i nju,ry t o a nother t a s inglep unch,r vaso f s ufficient f orce ( E mphasis a dded). 1 8 P a.C.S. S a to c ausee stensive nd s eriousi njuries t o a 270i (a)(1). " IB ]odi l y i nj ury" i s d ef ined very v ital p art o f t he h uman b ody. W e as " impairment o f p hysical c ondition o r b are u nimpressed y t he f act t hat t he a ppel- substantial p ain." 1 8 P a.C.S. $ 2 301. lant t estified t hat h e j ust m eant t o h it t he Simple a ssault i s a m isdemeanor f t he o v ictim a nd t hat i f h e h ad w anted t o k ill, h e second d egree u nlessc ommitted i n a f ight f have b eaten t he v ictim t o or s cuffle e ntered i nto b y m utual c onsent, -*+ou:a-prohgbj: rt-deatlu in u 'hich c ase i t i s a m isdemeanoro f t he ;- ri' -."-'-third d egree. 1 8 P a.C.S. $ 2 701(b). i ( ,fn. j udgment o f s entences a ffirmed' ) i"\ )--y Therefore, i f t here i s n ot s uch a f ight o r scuffle t he m aximum p enalty i s t wo y ears SPAETH, J ., f iles a d issentingo pinion imprisonmenta nd a $ 5,000f ine. 1 8 P a. in w hich H OFFNIAN a nd C ERCONE, C .S . 1 101(4)a nd 1 10-t(2).A p er soni s $$ J J ., J o rn . guilty o f a ggravated a ssault i f h e " attempts t o c ause s eriotts odily i nit'ry t o a n' b : SPAETH, J udge ( dissenting) other, o r c ausess uch i njury i ntentionaily, b The q uestionp resented y t his a ppeali s knorvingly, o r r ecklessly u nder c ircumt w m e whether t he e vidence as s ufficient t o s us- Stances anifesting xtremei ndif f erence o . . " ( Emtain a ppellant's c onviction f or a ggravated the v alue o f h uman l ife assauit. T he m ajority h olds t hat i t r vas, phasi s a dded). 1 8 P a.C .S .$ 2 7 02( a) ( 1) . and f inds t hat t he s tatutory r equirements "IS]erious b odily i njury" i s d efined a s -\q' l. I ! w hat f ouows, o nly t be p ertinelt p arts o f t he d efinitions o f t besec rioes a re q uoted' A 146 ,2d-2r Pa.Rco. 4F346 A .Zd-12 3 322 Pa' 2 3 16 ATLANTIC 3 ,EPOB,TXR,, d S ERIES that h e w as n ot s ubjectedt o a s ubstantial risk o f d eath. I \Ioreover, t here w as n o e v: idence t hat R osenzrveigr eceived a ny p erl manentd isfiguremento r p rotracted oss o r impairment o f t he f unction o f h is n ose. While a b roken n ose m ay e ntail s uch c on' t his sequences, c ourt o ught n ot t o s peculate h rvhether i n f act t hat h appened ere. C om' mowsealth. t ;. S impson, 4 36 P a. 1 39, 2 60 A.2d 7 31 ( 1970) ( convictionb asedw hollv on s uspiciono r c onjecturec annots tand.); 2 ll P a.Supera The l egislature h as t hus d ifferentiated Connnonwealth, . F einberg, a 9 19 ( 1967), ff'd,433 s eri- 100,1 13,2 34 A .2d 9 13, these a ssault c rimes a ccording t o t he 6 36 ( 1969) ( "[G]uilt Pa. 5 58, 2 53 A .Zd ousnesso f t he h arm d one o r a ttemPteo' B ar A ssociation'C om- must b e p roved a nd n ot b e c onjectural,a nd See P ennsylvania o t he cannotr est s olelyo n s usPicion r s urmise."). ments R elating t o t he P rovisions o f i ndividual If e vidence r vas a vailable t o p rove p erCrimes C ode 1 3 ( 197+)' I f a n t o manent o r P rotracted h arm, t he C ommondoes n o m ore t han s ubject a nother a ttemPtst o wealth s hould h ave p roduced i t. A s t he "physical c ontact," a nd n either l vould record r eads n orv, t here i s n ot s ufficient cause n or c auses a ny i n.!ury' h e h arassment' S ee evidence t o e stablish t hat a ppeliant seemingly b e g uilty o f a nd C -om- "causeId] s eriousb odily i njury." Belsky a nd G oldblatt, A nalysis C rimes C ode *.nt"ry t o t he P ennsyivania r The i ssue t herefore b ecomes vhethera pa ggra55 ( 1974). F or s imple a ssaulta nd pellant " attemptIed] t o c auses eriousb odia re uated a siault t he d eLerminativer vords a n a tb odily i njury'" ly i njury." A n i ndividual c ommits "bodily i njury" a nd " serious tempt r vhen h e i ntendst o c ommita s pecific a tFurther, t he i mportancet he l egislature crime a nd d oes a n a ct t hat c onstiiutesa o f c ontact a nd i njury i niacnea t o t he t )'pe of d iffer- substantials tep t oward t he c ommission b uotu.d i s e mphasized y t he g reat that c rime. 1 8 P a.C.S'$ 9 0i' S ee g ener' f or t he ence i n t he p unishmentsp rovided ally, C omnomttealthv , C roa,303 P a' 9 1' three c rimes.z 98, 1 54 A . 2 83, 2 85-86 ( 1931); C ontttott' 3 a ggra- u,ealth z '. l Viltard, 1 79 P a.Super. 68, 3 71, Since a ppellantw as c onvictedo f w hether t he l 16 A .Zd 7 r1,753 ( 1955). W hen a ppel l ant vated a ssault,t he q uestioni s t hat h e punched R osenzlveig, h e c ommitted t he evidencew as s ufficient t o s horv b odi- requisite a ct. I n r egard t o i ntent, t he t a"ur.d o r a ttemPtedo c ause" serious l na c reatrng Crimes C ode p rovides: " A P erson cts ly i njury", i . e ., a n i njury e ither e lec ausrng teniionally r viih r espectt o a m aterial 'ia s ubstantialr isk o f d eath" o r e l eo r p rotracteo ment o f a n o ffense w hen: ( i ) i f t he "permanent d isfigurement c onducto r o f R o- ment i nvolves t he n ature o f h is loss o r i mpairmento f t he f unction" o a r esuit t hereof, i t i s h is c onscious bject n senzweig's ose. t hat n ature o r ! o to e ngagei n c onduct o f ' ' " 1 8 P a'C'S' b roke R osen- causes uch a r esult Appellant's s ingle p unch i n o rder f or h e yes' T he S 3 02(b)(l )(i ). T herefore, ,ru.ig', n ose a nd b lackened is a t he n ecessary tR osen- appellant t o h ave m ade treatinento f t hesei njuries r equired t i ntended o c ause" set he h ospital' tempt, h e m ust h ave r.,".ig a s pendt hree h ours i n q uick r elease riousb odily i njury'" It i s-clearf rom t his r elatively a s ubstan"[b]odily i njury w hich c reates s o r r vhich:causes errous' tiat r isk o f d eath d isiigurement, o r p rotracied Dermanent o f a ny lo* o , i mpairment o f t he f unction P a'C'S' $ bodily m ember o r o rgan'" 1 8 A ggravated a ssault ( as s o d efined) 2301. t hereis a f elony o f t he s econdd egreea nd i s 1 0 y ears fore t he m axirnum p unishment P a' imprisonmenta nd a $ 25,000f ine' 1 8 a 1 C .S .$ S 1 0 1 (1 ) n d i 1 0 3 (2 )' u nder p rior 2. I t i s i oteresting t o D ote t hat ''r"* b ettery a nd a ggrar"ated i ",i-"tt"tri " "a m isdemeanors' A s*t""rl a ucl b attery r iere p eqalty a nd b attery c arrred a m iximum sauit of t wo y ears i n sault a ntl b attery 2 {, -{ct o f J une ?09, 1 8 P .S. $ $ p rison w bile a ggravated a s' h ad a t hree r -ear m aximum' 1 939, P .L. 6 ?2 $ $ ? 08 a ud 4 708 a nd 4 709' EASTER v . E AI{COCK Cita a s, P s.Super., 3 .16 .2d 3 93 A p" 323 Intent m ay b e p roved b y d irect e vidence, m eanor r vith a m a-timumt lvo y ear s entence o or i t m ay b e i nferred f rom e vidence f t he . or a f eiony r vith a m aximum t en y ear s enc ircumstances. C onnnon- t encesurrounding 2 28 uealth a . S toffa,n,:' P a.Super'1 27, 1 19, I For t hese r easons, r vould n ot h ave a l3 28 ( 1974), q rtoting C onb 323 A .zd,318, lorved a ppellant'sc onviction f or a ggravated a. ttronzrlealth F reeman,225P a'Super'3 96' assault t o s tand, H orvever, t he e vidence 3 13 A .ld770,77? ( 1973)' T here i s n o that a ppellant b roke R osenzrveig's osea nd 399, n direct e vidence t hat a ppellant i ntended t o blackenedh is e yes$ as, a s a ppellanta dmits cause R osenzweig s erious b odily i njury'3 in h is b rief, s ufficient t o p rove t hat h e t Three l vitnesses'R osenzrveig,he t asi c ab caused " bodily i njury." I r vould t herefore driver, a nd a ppellant,t estified t hat o nly a have r eversed t he j udgment o f s entence, single b lorv w as s truckr a nd t hat t hen a p- vacated t he v erdict o f g uilty o f a ggravated pellant w alked a way. H e d id n ot t hreaten assault, a nd r emanded r vith d irections t o to k ill o r t o c auses erious b odily i njury t o enler a v erdict o f g uilty o f s imple a ssault Rosenzweig, n or d id h e u se a l veapon' and t o i mposes entence t hereon. The t rial j udge p laced g reat e mphasis o n the f act t hat a ppellant h it R osenzrveigi n HOFFIIAI( a nd C ERCONE, J J.' j oin the h ead. H e f elt t hat s ince s erious b odily injury l rcl r esult f rom a b low t o t he h ead, in t his o pinion. it c ould b e i nferred t hat a ppellant i ntended to'cause s uch i njury. H owever, a s a lready indicated, t o s upport a f inding o f g uiit' a n inference " must b e b asedo n f acts a nd c onditions p roved a nd c annot r est s olely o n a suspicion o r s urmise'" C ommonanealth ' 1 27 A 'zd Grigory, 1 83 P a.SuPer'3 3, 5 7, E l e a n o r O . E A S T E R , l n d i v l d u a t l y a n d a s E x' 788,7 89 ( 1957). I t m av b e i nferred f rom a ggressor i necutrix of the Estateof Elmer W' a p unch t o t he h ead t hat t he Easter, D .eceased' b ut n ot' t.nd.d t o c ause " bodily i njury," t o c ause without m ore, t hat h e i ntended "seriousb odily i njury," t hat i s, p ermanent R e g i n a l d A . H A N C O C I ( e t a l . , A p p e l l a n ts' disfigurement, P rotracted i mpairment' o r Supcrior C otrrt o f P ennsYlrania. i njury c reating a s ubstantial r isk o f "n i njury m ay r esult Oct. 2 8. 1 975. death. S erious b odily from a ny P unch' a nd t herefore t o a ccept j udge the i nference m ade b y t he t riai Three p hysicians a nd a h ospital a pe very s implea ssaultt o would b e t o e levate pealed l rom a j udgment o f t he C ourt o f an a ggravateda ssaultl vith n o r eference t o Common P leas, C ivii D ivision, A llegheny the G riousness" o f t he a ct o r t he i njury' 4 7 A *. T erm, 1 970, F redt That w ould b e t o c ontravenehe l egislative County a t N o. a rvarding $ +9,000 d amages intent i n s eparalingt he t wo c rimes' a nd eric G . W eir, J ., p laintiff i n a m edical m alPractlce wouid l eave t o j udicial w him w hether a d e- to t he m isde- action b rought a gainst t hem. T he S uperifendant w as t o b e c onvicted o f a t o a s ubstantial lere w as n o e v:eived a ny p er'otracted osso r l rn o f h is n ose. entail s uch c onnot t o s peculate red h ere. C oui6 P a. 4 59, 2 60 rn b asedw holly cannot s tand.); r, 2 11 P a.Super. 1967),a ff'd,433 1969) ( "[G]uilt conjectural,a nd ln o r s urmise."). to p rove P err, t he C ommonced i t. A s t he s n ot s ufficient that a ppeliant nry." nes w hether a prse s eriousb odicommits a n a tommit a s pecific at c onstitutesa o r c ommission f )01. S ee g ener'ow, 3 03 P a. 9 1, 931); C omuon' ,Super.3 68, 3 71, When a ppellant committed t he to i ntent, t he p erson a cts i n! a m aterial e le(i) i f t he e leh is c onducto r f o conscious bject hat n ature o r l o . . " 1 8 P a.C.S. 'e, i n o rder f or a re n ecessary tled t o c ause" s9- p resented 3. I u f act, t he o oly d irect e vidence A t t rial' on t his i ssue w as t o t he e oDtrary' a dmitted s triking R osenz*'eig r vith uoo.ii"", E le e rplained' h owever' t hat h is il'-iitt. h acl i deutified R oseuzneig a s t he "i.ftti.ta had hit h er' l Yhes a sketl r ghat h is ilo" * :fto a ppellaut loi.ot t "ot in hitting R osenzweig' " Just h it h im' Y ou k nors' D ou't ..tp"ta.a: hit m y v ooran r lo l Dore' I f I w srted t o k ill ile a ggravated a s' 'ee y ear m aximum' ,. 8 72 $ $ ? 08 a nd 4709. L hinr, 1 'ou k nos', p robably c ould h ave b eateu j ust him t o d eath, b ut I d idn't d o t hat' I I q uite a gree * 'ith t he m ajoritJ' Itit h im." in b eing " uniupressed b y" t his t estimony; r n fact, I p lace n o * eight o u i t a t a ll, f or t o credit i t'n'ould n ot b e t o c onsidert he e vicleuce in t he l ight m ost f avorable t o t he C ommonrrealth. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course PL SC 101 taught by Professor Web during the Summer '11 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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