CRE HC1 Model Reactors - 1 Faculty of Science and...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Faculty of Science and Technology TCCB Chemical Reaction Engineering HC 1 Single phase reactors: Introduction & Model reactors Wim Brilman 2011 University of Twente. CONTENTS Introduction to process technology and reaction engineering Overview of the course (subjects & organisation) Definitions Conversion, selectivity & yield Reaction kinetics Mass balances Single phase systems: Model Reactors BR (Batch Reactor) CSTR (Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor) PFR (Plug Flow Reactor) 2 University of Twente. square4 Process Engineering : Technology for the (large scale) manufacture of higher value products from raw materials square4 Petrochemical industry square4 Base chemicals (CO, H 2 , C 2 H 4 , CH 3 OH, ) square4 Plastics, dyes, fibres, .... square4 Food sector square4 Pharmaceutical industry square4 Biotechnology (life science) square4 Ceramics.., steel, paper , etc. Introduction Especially important for the Netherlands, because of its logistically strategic location (>50% GNP due to process engineering, 70 % for export) Many Dutch multinationals: Shell, AKZO-NOBEL, DSM, Unilever, University of Twente. General process flow diagram Separation CONVERSION Raw materials Product(s) Separation By-product(s) Chemical Reaction Engineering: technology for optimal conversion of materials to desired products: Minimal use of raw materials and utilities (energy, water, solvents, ) Minimal by-products (costs, environmental impact, ) As safe as possible Economical REACTOR central position in production process Conversion and Selectivity 3 University of Twente. Conversion (relative): Differences between and due to reaction rate dependency on the (local and possibly unsteady) concentrations! mass of P produced overall mass of A converted overall P = Integral selectivity: ,0 ,0 mass of A converted mass of A overall fed A A A A m m m - = = nett mass production rate of P mass conversion rate of A P = Differential selectivity: P P Definitions of conversion, selectivity and yield: Yield: mass of A converted to P mass of A fed P A P = = University of Twente. Conversion ( ), Selectivity ( ), Yield ( ) A P Y A: reactant P: desired product Y: byproduct possible . max produced P P P P Yield = = fed converted A A A A Conversion = = converted P to converted P A P A A A y Selectivit = = 4 University of Twente. Example: A: 4 kg/h Feed stream: S: 6 kg/h A: 1 kg/h Product stream: S: 6 kg/h P: 2 kg/h Q: 1 kg/h Reactions: A P Reaction 1: A Q Reaction 2: Conversion: Integral selectivity: Yield: ,0 , ,0 , ,0 , ,0 4 1 0.75 4 A A m A m A A A m A m m t t m t --- = = = = 2 0.50 0.75 0.667 0.50 4 P A P = = = = = 2 [kg/h] 0.667 (4 1) [kg/h] P = =- 1 0.333 (4 -1) Q = = ( ) Note: total mass is conserved!...
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CRE HC1 Model Reactors - 1 Faculty of Science and...

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