1.5 - Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering

1.5 - Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering - ChE...

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1 ChE 471 – LECTURE 1 1 Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering and Some Definitions Whenever there is a change in the atomic content, or atomic configuration, of a molecule of a particular chemical species brought about by interaction with molecules of other chemical species, or due to an input of energy, a chemical reaction takes place! Such chemical transformations form the basis for manufacture of new chemicals, pharmaceuticals, fuels and materials and also occur in nature. Being able to conduct chemical reactions at controlled conditions with maximum selectivity, yield and energy efficiency, while minimizing the consequences to the environment, is one of the key tasks of chemical reaction engineering. The other is the development of quantitative understanding of the reactions in the natural environment and their interactions with the chemical species generated and/or released by man , and design of methods for pollution prevention and abatement. Finally, selecting appropriate reactions and executing them in a controlled fashion in production of specialty materials, pharmaceuticals, feed, food and a variety of consumer products is yet another task of chemical reaction engineering (CRE). Chemical reaction engineering (CRE) is thought of as a blend of applied chemical kinetics and chemical thermodynamics by industrial chemists, who view it as a set of procedures by which one can determine how far a certain reaction can proceed (chemical equilibrium) and at what rate, depending on process conditions, can that final state be approached. Chemical engineers think of CRE as the subject of chemical reactor design, which, ideally, for important large-scale processes, requires them to master and follow the procedure specified below in steps a) through j ). a) Establish reaction mechanism b) Collect rate data free of transport limitations. c) Correlate rate data by mathematical equation or otherwise. d) Formulate suitable models for reactor design and select reactor type (i.e. ideal flow pattern). e) Account for nonideality of real reactors and for the effect of physical transport processes.
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2 f) Select reactor size and operating conditions. g) Specify key reactor elements. h) Specify auxiliary equipment. i) Specify methods of control. j) Specify start-up and shut-down procedures. Schematically, the body of knowledge and activities involved in reactor design are summarized in Figure 1.
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3 Reactor Design Thermodynamics Kinetics: Theory & Experiment Physical Chemistry Transport Phenomena Mass & Heat Transfer Coefficients Nonideality of flow Mass & Energy Balances from Basic Plant Design Reactor Type & Size Disciplines Involved in CRE Model Formulation for Reactor Design Kinetic Rate Model Analysis Computer Calculations Reactor Type and Size Theory Models for Heat & Mass Transfer Empirical Correlations Theoretical Considerations of Mechanisms Laboratory Data Economics and constraints imposed by equipment upstream and downstream Activities Involved in CRE FIGURE 1: Disciplines and Activities Involved in CRE We will now consider in turn some of the basic definitions needed for appropriate chemical reaction engineering analysis.
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course CHEMICAL E 534 taught by Professor Fogler during the Spring '11 term at University of Michigan-Dearborn.

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1.5 - Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering - ChE...

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