3 - Research Methods - ResearchMethods...

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Research Methods LECTURE 3: SEPETEMBER 1, 2011 PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY ZACHARY ALEXANDER ROSNER 1
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Today What is the scientific method? How can we do research in psychology? How can we collect and analyze data? What are some ethical considerations? What are some different research tools? 2
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Getting Started Make an observation of behavior, and come up  with a theory to explain that behavior. Generate a hypothesis based on that theory. 3
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Research Designs Three Basic Behavioral Research Designs   Descriptive Designs:  Observe behaviors Correlational Designs Compare (co-related) behaviors Experimental Designs:  Manipulate behaviors 4
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Description: What is the Behavior? descriptive (observational) study  – research method  that involves observing and noting behavior. *come up with examples. 5
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Description: What is the Behavior? Two types: Naturalistic: Where the observer is apart  from and makes no attempt  to alter or change the  situation. Participant: Where the researcher is  involved in the situation 6 Konrad Lorenz’s imprinting
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Description: 3 Decisions Should the study be done in the  laboratory (case studies, surveys,  questionnaires) or in the natural  environment? How are you going to collect the data? Should the observer be visible? Reactivity is an effect that occurs when the  knowledge that one is being observed alters the  behavior being observed. Observer bias: systematic errors in observation  that occur due to an observer’s expectations. 7
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Correlational Designs Correlational designs compare two factors or  measure, but there is no manipulation of factors: Examples: Violent TV vs. aggression. GPA vs. study time Learning ability vs. brain size Correlation does not equal causation!                      Scatterplot Remember, correlation is not an experiment! 8
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Degrees of Correlations Strength of correlations is measured by the r statistic  (0= no correlation, +/-1.0= perfect correlation)  Everybody come up with their own correlational study. 9 r= .04 r= .55 r= .86 r=.-.46
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Correlation Issues Correlation does not equal causation!  B     OR     B   A The third-variable problem: a third variable could be  the cause of a third variable  A     AND     C   B *videos 10
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Experimental Design Scientific Method develop theory  (i. e., general  principles) about behavior. generate hypothesis 
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 2 taught by Professor ? during the Fall '11 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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3 - Research Methods - ResearchMethods...

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