Lecture 17 - Unit#9 Unit The Nervous System Introduction...

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Unit #9 Unit #9 The Nervous System The Nervous System Introduction & Central Nervous Introduction & Central Nervous System (CNS) System (CNS)
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Introduction Introduction The nervous system is the master control and communication system Has three overlapping functions Sensory receptors monitor changes inside and outside the body Change a stimulus Gathered information sensory input Processes and interprets sensory input Makes decisions integration Dictates a response by activating effector organs Response motor output
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Fig. 12.1 Sensory input Motor output Integration
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Divisions of the Nervous System Divisions of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) b rain and spinal cord Integrating and command center Peripheral nervous system (PNS) o utside the CNS Consists of nerves extending from brain and spinal cord known as cranial nerves and spinal nerves Peripheral nerves link all regions of the body to the CNS Ganglia are clusters of neuronal cell bodies
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Fig. 12.2 Brain Spinal cord CNS Nerves Ganglia PNS Terminology: - Nerve bundle of fibers in PNS - Tract bundle of fibers in CNS - Ganglia collection of neuron cell bodies in the PNS - Nucleus collection of neuron cell bodies in the CNS
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Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Parasympathetic division Motor (efferent) division Sensory (afferent) division Somatic nervous system Sympathetic division Autonomic nervous system (ANS) Brain and spinal cord Integrative and control centers Cranial nerves and spinal nerves Communication lines between the CNS and the rest of the body Conserves energy Promotes house- keeping functions during rest Motor nerve fibers Conducts impulses from the CNS to effectors (muscles and glands) Somatic and visceral sensory nerve fibers Conducts impulses from receptors to the CNS Somatic motor (voluntary) Conducts impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles Mobilizes body systems during activity Visceral motor (involuntary) Conducts impulses from the CNS to cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands Somatic sensory fiber Visceral sensory fiber Motor fiber of somatic nervous system Skin Stomach Skeletal muscle Heart Bladder Parasympathetic motor fiber of ANS Sympathetic motor fiber of ANS Structure Function Sensory (afferent) division of PNS Motor (efferent) division of PNS Fig. 12.3
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Cells of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System 2 major cell types: 1. Neurons conduct action potentials Multipolar, bipolar, unipolar 2. Neuroglia nervous connective tissue CNS Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells PNS Schwann cells, satellite cells Fig. 12.4
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Structure of a Nerve Structure of a Nerve Nerve fiber axon Nerve bundle of fibers in PNS Epineurium surrounds entire nerve Perineurium surrounds bundle of fibers (fascicle) Endoneurium surrounds single fiber Blood vessels Fascicle Epineurium Perineurium Endoneurium Axon Myelin sheath Fig. 12.8
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