14 - Unit #7 Unit Abdominal Cavity The Digestive System...

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Unit #7 Unit #7 Abdominal Cavity Abdominal Cavity The Digestive System The Digestive System
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Introduction Introduction Digestive system is responsible for taking in food, break it down, absorb nutrients into blood Two main organ groups of the digestive system Alimentary canal gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) Muscular tube that extends from mouth to anus Accessory digestive organs lie external to the GI tract and connected by ducts Secrete saliva, bile and digestive enzymes
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Mouth (oral cavity) Tongue Esophagus Liver Gallbladder Anus Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Small intestine Parotid gland Sublingual gland Submandibular gland Salivary glands Pharynx Stomach Pancreas Transverse colon Descending colon Ascending colon Cecum Sigmoid colon Rectum Vermiform appendix Anal canal Large intestine Fig. 23.1
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The Digestive Process The Digestive Process Ingestion food enters digestive process via the mouth Propulsion the movement of food Via peristalsis Mechanical digestion breakdown of food into smaller pieces Chewing, food churning in stomach, segmentation (local constriction in intestine) Fig. 23.3
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The Digestive Process The Digestive Process Chemical digestion breakdown of food molecules (e.g. carbs) into building blocks (e.g. simple sugars) Occurs in mouth, stomach, small intestine Absorption nutrients transported from alimentary canal into blood & lymphatic capillaries Defecation elimination of indigestible substances as feces
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Fig. 23.2 Food Ingestion Propulsion Esophagus Stomach Pharynx • Swallowing (oropharynx) Mechanical digestion Chemical digestion • Chewing (mouth) • Churning (stomach) • Segmentation (small intestine) Small intestine Large intestine Defecation Anus Feces 2 Blood vessel Lymph vessel Absorption • Peristalsis (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine)
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Abdominal Regions Abdominal Regions Four lines divide abdominal wall into nine regions Midclavicular lines vertical lines of grid Subcostal plane superior horizontal line Connects inferior points of costal margin Transtubercular plane inferior horizontal line Connects tubercles of iliac crests Epigastric region Umbilical region Right lumbar region Left lumbar region Right hypochondriac region Left hypochondriac region Hypogastric (pubic) region Right iliac (inguinal) region Left iliac (inguinal) region Fig. 23.4
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How regions relate to abdominal viscera Liver Gallbladder Ascending colon of large intestine Small intestine Appendix Cecum Diaphragm Stomach Descending colon of large intestine Transverse colon of large intestine Initial part of sigmoid colon Urinary bladder Fig. 23.4
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A Simpler Scheme… A Simpler Scheme… A simpler method of sectioning the anterior abdominal wall Right upper quadrant Left upper quadrant Right lower quadrant Left lower quadrant
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course BIOL 301 taught by Professor Pickard during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.

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14 - Unit #7 Unit Abdominal Cavity The Digestive System...

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