Mutation - Mutation and Genetic Variation Objectives Types...

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Mutation and Genetic Variation
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Objectives Types of mutations and their effects Most of the material in this section is derived from Text chapter 5. However, chapter 5 is not required reading as it should be review for most of you.
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Mutation Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation, and provides the raw material for other evolutionary forces, such as natural selection and genetic drift to act on. Without mutation, there can be no evolution
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Mutation Mutation : any heritable change in the genetic material (DNA) Mutations can generally be classed as single gene mutations, which affect a single gene only, or chromosomal mutations which affect many genes. Initially, any new mutation at a diploid nuclear locus will have a low frequency in a population ( 1/2N , where N is the population size). As result, on its own, mutation will have a very limited impact on population allele frequencies, but when combined with other forces such as selection, it can have a very important effect
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Point Mutations Result in New Alleles Point mutations are single base pair changes eg G to C Two types: transitions and transversions Transitions are more common than transversions Point mutations can be synonymous (eg do not change amino acid) or non-synonymous (amino acid replacement) Many mutations are silent (synonymous) because of genetic code redundancy The substitution of a purine with a purine, or a pyrimidine with a pyrimidine is a transition The substitution of a purine with a pyrimidine or vise versa is a transversion
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result in new Alleles Indels : refer to the insertion or deletion of
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2011 for the course BIOL 301 taught by Professor Pickard during the Spring '09 term at Waterloo.

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Mutation - Mutation and Genetic Variation Objectives Types...

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