Exam 1 Study guide

Exam 1 Study guide - COPYRIGHT C.DAVID BRIDGES BIOLOGY...

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COPYRIGHT C.DAVID BRIDGES BIOLOGY 201/203 REVIEW FOR EXAMINATION I IMPORTANT The following is a review of some selected material. Use it as a supplement to my notes and the objectives outlined in them. Do not (repeat, NOT) use this as a substitute for my notes. My PowerPoint presentation will roughly follow this review, but there may be some changes relating to organization, animations, pictures etc. THE QUESTIONS The questions provided are purely for instructional purposes. They are exercises. They are not questions that will appear in the examination.
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LECTURES 1 AND 2 These lectures do not require extra material for help. As with all my lectures, after studying the material make sure you can do the objectives WITHOUT consulting my notes. LECTURE 3. elements, atoms, subatomic particles isotopes molecules, formulas, bond types, chemical reactions electrolytes, acids, bases, salts concept of pH: calculate hydrogen ion concentration from pH, and the reverse – pH from hydrogen ion concentration – know the pH of water, blood, vinegar, ammonia.
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CELLS INORGANIC ORGANIC (contain C,H) CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS NUCLEOTIDES polysaccharides albumen DNA disaccharides collagen RNA monosaccharides hemoglobin enzymes ATP actin elastin triglycerides phospholipids steroids LIST ALL EXAMPLES OF EACH CLASS GIVEN IN MY NOTES
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CARBOHYDRATES MONOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES Six-carbon : sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 glucose = glucose + fructose) (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) lactose (= glucose + fructose galactose ) galactose Five-carbon : deoxyribose (in DNA) ribose (in RNA) POLYSACCHARIDES glycogen (many glucose molecules strung together) starch (vegetable)
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LIPIDS TRIGLYCERIDES PHOSPHOLIPIDS = FATS framework of consist of the plasma glycerol + 3 membrane. Have fatty acids, hydrophilic such as oleic, heads and stearic, and hydrophobic palmitic tails. Each molecule contains two molecules of fatty acids phosphatidyl- choline phosphatidyl- ethanolamine phosphatidyl- serine STEROIDS testosterone estradiol cortisol cholesterol
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PHOSPHOLIPIDS – a bilayer of phospholipid molecules forms the framework of the plasma membrane . Proteins and cholesterol (not shown) are then attached to or inserted into this bilayer (notes). nucleolus nucleus plasma membrane nuclear pore Phosphate H H basic N framework: C hydrophilic C head phospho- O lipid H-P=O bilayer O H H H-C-C-C-H H O O single O=C C=O phospho- lipid molecule hydrophobic tail (two fatty acids)
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PROTEINS – consist of chains of amino acids joined by covalent bonds called peptide bonds. The following is part of the amino acid sequence of an imaginary protein: ------Leu-Phe-Gly-Ala-Leu-Leu-His-Arg-Gly-Ser-Gly-------- (Leu = leucine, Phe = phenylalanine, Gly = glycine, Ala = alanine, His = histidine, Arg = arginine, Ser = serine).
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Exam 1 Study guide - COPYRIGHT C.DAVID BRIDGES BIOLOGY...

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