Chapter_36

Chapter_36 - Chapter 36 Defense Against Disease: The Immune...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 36 Defense Against Disease: The Immune System Three lines of defense against microbial attack Three lines of defense: 1: external barriers (skin, mucous membranes) Three lines of defense: A. skin Three lines of defense: external barriers A.skin physical barrier to microbial entry Three lines of defense: 1. external barriers A.skin physical barrier inhospitable environment for growth; dry, dead cells at surface. Sweat/sebaceous glands secreting acids & natural antibiotics like lactic acid. Three lines of defense: 1. external barriers A.skin physical barrier inhospitable environment B.mucous membranes of respiratory and digestive tracts well-defined. Secretions have antibacterial enzymes. Chapter 36 contd: Three lines of defense against microbial attack Dirt caught in mucus, moved by cilia Three lines of defense: 1. external barriers A.skin physical barrier inhospitable environment B.mucous membranes C.Stomach; if microbes swallowed, acids and protein-digesting enzymes destroy them Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A.phagocytic cells: white blood cells (WBC) in extracellular fluid, amoeboid shape, destroy microbes by phagocytosis. Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells: WBC that destroy body cells infected by viruses and cancerous cells by punching HOLES in them. Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells C. inflammatory response, caused by large-scale microbial invasion through wound Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells C. inflammatory response histamine is released when cell damage is detected Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells C. inflammatory response histamine increases blood flow to wash out wound Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells C. inflammatory response histamine increased blood flow inflammation (red, swollen, warm) Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells C. inflammatory response histamine increased blood flow inflammation other chemicals from damaged cells attract Phagocytic WBCs that engulf bacteria, dirt, and tissue debris Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense A. phagocytic cells B. natural killer cells C. inflammatory response histamine increased blood flow inflammation other chemicals macrophages blood clotting walls off wounded area. Pus is just WBC dying WBCs exuded out of capillary walls Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defense 1. phagocytic cells 2. natural killer cells 3. inflammatory response histamine increased blood flow inflammation other chemicals macrophages blood clotting 4. Fever = response to microbes establishing major infection. Low-grade (100-102 F) fevers beneficial. Lines of defense: 2. nonspecific internal defenseLines of defense: 2....
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Chapter_36 - Chapter 36 Defense Against Disease: The Immune...

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