da00fbc648c648038d27766290d6eba9 - CH 18...

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CH 18 Systematics (taxonomy): Seeking Order Amidst Diversity taxonomy - the branch of biology concerned with naming & classifying the diverse forms of life on our planet -we are Homo sapiens ( genus , always upper case letter & species , always lower case)* -can also be underscored there are many things that may be grouped: example- Plants vs Animals: one of the earliest classifications placed the animals in one group & the plants in another. The bacteria, fungi, & many protists were considered plants while some of the protists were grouped with the animals Taxonomy 5 kingdoms: -Until recently, the most common taxonomic system was based on five kingdoms -Now there are 3 domains* with those five kingdoms placed in 3 different domains. -The 3 domains & the kingdoms within them each have observably different attributes that define them. Bacteria - prokaryotes Archaea - prokaryotes Eukarya- eukaryotes, us, 4 kingdoms: animals, fungi, plants, protists (life began on Earth approx 4 by ago; humans have been around for 150,000 years) (prokaryotes are in kingdom monera; humans come from eukarya domain and animalia kingdom) Domain Kingdom Cell Type Cell # Nutrition Method* Archaea 3 prokaryotic unicell absorp/ photosyn Bacteria 13-15 prokaryotic unicell absorp/ photosyn Eukarya Protista eukaryotic unicell absorp/ photosyn /ingestion Fungi eukaryotic multicell absorp Plantae eukaryotic multicell photosyn Animalia eukaryotic multicell ingestion (the way they feed is how we distinguish animal from plant) Taxonomic categories: 1. The organization of taxonomic grouping arranges organisms in sets 2. Each set is then grouped with other sets into a larger set 3. The major taxonomic categories from most inclusive* (biggest set) to least inclusive* (smallest set) are: domain, earth- most inclusive species- least inclusive Taxonomic categories:* may be asked to put in order Domain, Kingdom, Phylum (Division), Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species* (from most inclusive to least inclusive) (Dear King Phil Came Over For Gene's Special)
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*Table 18-1: what do these have in common?: human, chimpanzee, wolf, fruit fly, sequoia Genus - the category genus groups together closely related organisms which may or may not interbreed -this separation based on interbreeding defines the category species Species - the biological group which includes all the organisms which are or have potential for interbreeding= biological species concept* -must be in the same geographic location naturally* -many species were originally distinguished by morphology: if two organisms look alike, they must be the same species -however, biological species are based on the ability to reproduce (individuals may look similar, but can't reproduce & aren't the same species ex. different kinds of bluebirds from around the world; or they can look diff but can reproduce, therefore are the same species ex. dogs) -Historically, taxonomy is an inexact process. -Organisms which were once placed together in a certain classification group have been
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da00fbc648c648038d27766290d6eba9 - CH 18...

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