LAB EXERCISE 5 completed (1) - Lab 5 | The H u200b omo G...

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Unformatted text preview: Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C Name_________________________________________________________________________ Date _____________________ Ashley Frazzetto 6/28/2020 LAB EXERCISE 5 - 100 points (4 pts per question) EARLY VERSUS LATER MEMBERS OF THE GENUS H ​ OMO Refer to the pictures below to answer the following questions. 1. Which of these 4 mystery fossils is H ​ omo habilis (​ could be more than 1)​? W ​ hy? B 2. Which of these 4 mystery fossils is H ​ omo erectus (​ could be more than 1)? Why? A 3. Describe at least two traits you used to make these identifications. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. fossil A is Homo erectus because, unlike B it's cranium is shaped less rounded and in more of a football shape. Mystery fossil A also has a much more pronounced brow ridge which is also more common among H. Erectus Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C THE EVOLUTION OF BIPEDALISM Use the A ​ ustralopithecus afarensis​ and H ​ omo erectus​ postcrania pictures below to answer the following questions. 4. Describe at least two postcranial traits that differ between these two species. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. One difference we can see between A. afarensis and H. erectus is the length of the femur, and a second one being the shape of the rib cage. 5. What do these differences suggest about the two species’ degrees of bipedalism? The longer femur for H. erectus suggests that it was used more meaning it wasnt just a habitual biped but an obligate one. This is also suggested by the barrel shaped rib cage. As the pelvis changed and spine lengthened the rib cage takes a noticeably different shape as well. The opposite can be seen on A. afarensis suggesting that it was not an obligate biped but rather habitual one Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO ERECTUS​ VARIATION Refer to the pictures below to answer the following questions. 6. Describe at least two traits that differ between these fossils. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in each of the fossils. lack of brow ridge, difference in chin structure 7. Why might these differences exist? (Hint: Consider factors such as date, environment, adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.) lack of brow ridge, age of fossil, weather damage, age deteriation 8. Do you think these differences warrant the classification of these fossils as two distinct species (​Homo ergaster and H ​ omo erectus​)? Why or why not? Yes, lack of brow ridge could be related to deteriation or weather damage when found Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS Refer to the H ​ omo heidelbergensis​ and H ​ omo erectus​ crania pictures below to answer the following questions. 9. Describe at least one trait that these two species have in common. Both H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis have a pronounced brow ridge. 10. Describe at least one trait that differs between the two species. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. A difference between H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis can be seen in the shape of the skull. H. heidelbergensis has a smaller more rounded cranium whereas H. erectus cranium is elongated and has a protrusion called the occipital torus Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C STONE TOOL TECHNOLOGY Examine the mystery stone tools pictured below to answer the following questions. 11. Which mystery tool is a handaxe? A 12. Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. it is a pear shaped tool with one end being more narrow and pointed than the other end. 13. What tool technology does it belong to? Acheulean tool technology. 14. Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. Homo erectus is an example of one fossil species that commonly used the Acheulean handaxe. 15. Which mystery tool is made from a Levallois flake? C 16. Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. sharp edges and point 17. What tool technology does it belong to? Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. Which mystery tool is a blade? Describe the features of this tool that led you to identify it as this tool type. What tool technology does it belong to? B is a Blade slender shape twice as long as width / Upper Paleolithic technology 18. Name one fossil species that may have made this tool. a. Homo sapiens are the fossil species that commonly used blades in many forms. Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS Review the mystery fossils in the pictures below and answer the following questions. 19. Which of these mystery fossils is H ​ omo neanderthalensis​? fossil B is H. neanderthalensis 20. Which of these mystery fossils is​ Homo sapiens​? fossil A is H. sapien. 21. Describe at least two traits you used to make these identifications. Be sure to describe how each trait appears in the two fossils. Mystery fossil A is a Homo sapien because it lacks the large brow ridge of fossil B, as well as the large nasal aperture that is common among H. neanderthalensis. Lab 5 | The H ​ omo G ​ enus ANT2511C HOMO FLORESIENSIS 22. Compare the mystery fossil crania pictured and complete the chart below. Place an “X” in the appropriate column to indicate which mystery fossils have the traits listed. Note: A trait may be found in more than one mystery fossil. Mystery Fossil A Large cranial capacity Low cranium Presence of chin Large mandible x 23. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is H ​ omo floresiensis? b 24. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is H ​ omo sapiens​? a 25. Based on this information, which mystery fossil is an australopith? c Mystery Fossil B Mystery Fossil C x x ...
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