Ch8%2c9 - Chapters8and9 OpticalAtomicSpectrometry Topics:

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Chapters 8 and 9 Optical Atomic Spectrometry Topics 1.Atomic spectrometry and excited states Spin-Orbit Coupling and electronic state energies Sources of line broadening in atomic  spectroscopy 2.Sample introduction methods for atomic spectrometry Nebulizers for liquid samples Introduction methods for solid samples 3.Types of atomizers 4.Interferences in atomic spectroscopy
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Origins of Atomic Spectra:  Transitions Between Electronic  States Example: Sodium Atoms
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Slight Complication: Spin-Orbit Coupling Atomic p-orbitals are split into two energy  levels due to spin-orbit coupling. Spin orbit coupling : The energy level  of an excited state is slightly elevated  when  the magnetic moments of the  electron spin and orbital angular  momentum are parallel.  Any transition originating or ending in a p  orbital actually has two separate  transitions. The energy difference is so small a single  line is typically observed.  High resolution analysis would show the  line as a doublet.  [ λ ’s in  Å]
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Factors affecting line width in atomic  spectroscopy 1. Natural Broadening  - The lifetime of the excited states  leads to uncertainty in the transition energy.  E ⋅ ∆ t =h/2 π  relationship Lifetimes of 10 -8  s lead to width of 10 -5  nm. 2. Collisional Broadening  -Also referred to as  ‘ Pressure  Broadening’   Collisions of atoms in excited state with other species shortens excited  state lifetimes and hence increases broadening
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Ch8%2c9 - Chapters8and9 OpticalAtomicSpectrometry Topics:

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