1. Is news a mirror of reality?
No, it is a representation of the world, and all representations are selective.
2. Do journalists make decisions at random? Explain.
Most of the subjectivity in news is patterned and predictable rather than personal. Journalists do
not make their decisions at random. Because they are under pressure to churn out a product every
twenty-four hours, they depend on reliable shorthand, conventions, routines, habits, and
assumptions about how, why, and where to gather news.
3. What is Schudson’s view of framing?
Intentional political bias certainly exists. For instance, executives have to determine whether to
air bin Laden’s tapes, whether to reveal sensitive military data, whether to report suicides, etc.
However, ideologically/politically motivated bias does not normally dominate US news
institutions. The idea of studying bias has been replaced by studying “framing.” Frames in the
media are “principles of selection, emphasis, and presentation composed of little tacit theories
about what exists, what happens, and what matters.” Bias is generally avoided; framing is
humanly impossible to avoid because something must be reported, and something must be left
out. If a nigger robs a store, do you not report it out of fear that it seems biased? Whether or not
you report it, framing has occurred. Thus, some have said that one can study how a society edits
its news to understand its culture.
4. What is true about news and exceptions?
The news picks up the exceptions more often than the rules – the events and actions at the borders
and the margins of the normal.
5. On pp. 38-39, what does the author claim about journalists and owners and the question of
While some media scholars claim that corporations have made the most legitimate news source