Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 1 W hat has contributed to the...

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Chapter 4 1. What has contributed to the perception that life has become propelled by mass media? We are what we are because we were what we were. The present is explained by what has happened in the past, and journalism chronicles our history. The growth of television news in the 1960s, the growing commercial competition faced by public broadcasters in Europe, and the availability of cable and satellite-beamed news delivery have all contributed to the widespread sense that life is oriented to information propelled by the mass media. 2. What does Schudson claim about the collapse of the public sphere in the 19 th century? The “public sphere” describes the newspaper’s ability to enable private persons to discuss public issues without government sponsorship or surveillance. Emerged in Western Europe in the late 1700s, as the spread of information allowed people to converse as equals in coffeehouses or salons. This public sphere began to collapse by the mid-to-late 1800s as the potential for profit made “information” a business and centralized power to a small number of private, for-profit news organizations. The newspaper “evolved out of the public’s use of its reason” to “a medium for culture as an object of consumption.” 3. What are the two master trends that have affected the American experience of news? The two master trends are commercialization and professionalization of the news. German sociologist Jurgen Habermas: Reasoned public discourse about politics arose from the bourgeois, and news is the tool of the publishers who appoint editors who act in the private interest of a profit-oriented enterprise. While Habermas’s argument has been
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