History 261 - History261 PeriodsofWorldCivilization

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History 261  Periods of World Civilization Neolithic Period (c. 8000-2000 BCE) Rise of complex societies (c. 3000-800 BCE)  Classical Period (c. 800 BCE-650 CE) -Axial age (800-200 BCE) -Age of Empires (c. 600 BCE-225 CE) -Late-Classical Period (c. 225-650 CE) Post- Classical Period ( c. 650-1500 CE) -CE –Common Era 8/22/11 Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) – 8000-2000 BCE   -Neolithic Revolution  *Invention of Writing *Complex societies *Agriculture- a surplus in agriculture  * Domestication of cereal grasses (wheat, barley, rye) *Crop Rotation  ~Pulses ( beans, lentils) – helped to enrich soil *Domestication of Animals 
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~cows, sheep, goats, pigs *Pottery  ~black “eggshell” ritual stem cup (early China)  ~ mass produced for practical use Copper (Chaolcolithic Age) Copper Stone Age Beginning of the Iron Age Textiles New Institutions  o Marriage o Slavery o Inheritance-ownership and transmission of it o Cemeteries- evidence of large scale warfare beside natural deaths o Language Families  ~Afro-Asiatic ~Sino-Tibetan ~Indo-European ~Semetic- East- Akkadian, Aramaic, Arabic, Hebrew, Canaanite Early Complex Societies Bronze Age- ( 3000-800 BCE) *5 regions we see complex societies emerge 1) Mesopotamia and near East 2) NE Africa- Nile River
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3) S Asia- Indus River Valley Harapush 4) Yellow River Valley 5) Crete and islands of Aegean Sea Mesopotamia and the Near East What makes complex societies unique? -Urban Centers  -Cities *walled, centers of commerce *concentrations of people Ex. Sumer-urban centers and rural countryside (river valley Alluvial Plain) *Urban centers provide order (economical, political, military)  land owners provided this -Temple complexes- Religion ~figures of authority Ex. Ziggurat (Ur) -Complex irrigation (argument for some places) -Long Distance trade -Specialization of Activities Specialization of Activities *Priests/ scribes * Warriors/Rulers *Merchants/Record Keepers *Architects/Masons/Carpenters *Artisans/Craftsmen (shoemakes, jewelers, potters, smiths
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*Farmers/ shepherds (boatmen, fishermen) Social Stratification/ Hierarchy Inequality -owners of land -social capital (rulers, priests) Writing -with this you will find a complex society or forming of one -from logogram to syllabogram, cuneiform, cuneius-wedge Mathematics  -practical uses -geometry , calculating inheritance, Pythagorean theorem  Common Culture -worldview, belief system  Religion and Worldview (sin-lique-unninni) -Kings had to negotiate his authority  * Enuma Elish or Epic of Creation (18 th -12 th  century BCE)  ~A lot of violence ~various unions and conflicts of the gods that lead to our natural world ~All that happened before was for this moment (Babylon)
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History 261 - History261 PeriodsofWorldCivilization

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