My_Ch4_lecture(2009030423450772)

My_Ch4_lecture(2009030423450772) - Chapter 4: Carbon and...

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Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Purpose : to understand the importance of the versatility of carbon, as THE important molecular building block in making the diversity of life (molecular and higher levels) possible. What you MUST know from Ch 4: Carbon bonding Isomers Functional groups Organic chemistry —study of carbon compounds. The modern study of organic chemistry began with the idea of mechanism: that natural phenomena are governed by physical and chemical laws (key experiment: Stanley Miller (1953) used simulated lightning to make organic compounds from components of a primitive atmosphere, Fig. 4.1, p 49). Most naturally occurring organic compounds are made by living organisms The variety and complexity of organic molecules are due to the unique chemical versatility of carbon Electron configuration of carbon determines the type and # of chemical bonds it will form: Carbon has 4 valence electrons (in a shell that holds 8 electrons) o will form 4 covalent bonds o = tetravalence , so each molecule can branch off in 4 directions (tetrahedral shape) o Carbon can make large, complex molecules
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Carbon can bond with other carbon atoms to form long chains Review Fig. 4.2 for shapes of 3 organic molecules (shape depends on # bonds formed) Carbon’s most frequent partners in bonding are O, H, and N Carbon skeleton length and shape varies
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My_Ch4_lecture(2009030423450772) - Chapter 4: Carbon and...

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