My_Ch7_lecture(2009030423470431)

My_Ch7_lecture(2009030423470431) - Chapter 7: The Cell...

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Chapter 7: The Cell Purpose : to understand the major different types of cells and the function of cell organelles and structures (AP Major Theme V: structure and function). While most of this chapter may be review for you, there are some details that will be new. What you MUST know from Ch 7: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells Animal vs. Plant cells Cell organelles Exoskeleton Cilia vs. flagella Intercellular junctions Tools to study the cell (just read pages 102-105 and look at the relevant graphics): Light microscope Electron microscope (EM) o Transmission electron microscope (internal ultrastructure of cells) o Scanning electron microscope (surface, 3-D) Cell fractionation by ultracentrifuge (study cell components by breaking apart cells) Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells Main difference: Prokaryote = literally “before the nucleus” = NO NUCLEUS Eukaryote = “true nucleus” = HAS A NUCLEUS
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Other than the nucleus, here’s what you need to know: Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. Larger = higher metabolic (energy) requirements….remember that cell size has to do with the distance that substances must travel/ diffuse through a cell. Prokaryotes have a single “naked” DNA in a region called the nucleoid, which is NOT surrounded by a membrane. Prokaryotic DNA has no associated proteins. Prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic ribosomes Bacterial cell walls are made from peptidoglycan , a polysaccharide-protein molecule Prokaryotic flagella are NOT made from microtubules Animal vs. Plant cells See figs 7.7 and 7.8, pgs 108-109 Plant cells have cell walls , chloroplasts , and central vacuoles . Animal cells do not. Animal cells have lysosomes and centrioles . Plant cells do not. Membranes —will be covered in scintillating detail in Ch 8 (for now, see fig 7.6 on pg 107) Plasma membrane —AKA cell membrane; selective boundary that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment Internal membranes —cover and separate cell
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organelles and are part of how each organelle works Membranes are not just passive phospholipid bilayer walls with holes. They are involved with critical cell functions, such as cellular respiration. Cytoplasm
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2011 for the course BIO 020.152 taught by Professor Pearlman during the Fall '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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My_Ch7_lecture(2009030423470431) - Chapter 7: The Cell...

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