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My_Ch19_lecture_rev(2009030423522634) - Chapter 19...

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Chapter 19: Eukaryotic Genomes What you MUST know in Ch 19: Nucleosome Histones Methylation Transcription factors RNA processing* Cancer: proto-oncogenes, oncogenes p53 gene Transposons* Some of these topics* have been covered in previous chapters; you are responsible for reading the relevant parts of this chapter on these topics. Note: NONE of these topics are underlined (for AP exam review, only), and Cliff’s has an extremely short section on DNA organization. I am not covering topics in this chapter that are not on the above list. Chromatin (form of DNA in interphase ) structure has different levels of DNA “packing” with proteins. Eukaryotic DNA is more complex than bacterial DNA, due to packing with histone proteins o Histones have + charged amino acids, so they bind tightly to – charged DNA o Histones only leave the DNA transiently during DNA replication Eukaryotic DNA is wound around histone proteins, forming a nucleosome “bead” (fig 19.1, p 345) o Nucleosomes are dynamic structures that allow transcription to take place The string of nucleosomes is then packed in loops and condensed to form a chromosome
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Control of gene expression each cell of a multicellular organism expresses only a small fraction of its genes o
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My_Ch19_lecture_rev(2009030423522634) - Chapter 19...

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