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ch34(200905012226097) - Chapter 34 Vertebrate...

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Chapter 34: Vertebrate Diversity/Evolution What you MUST know in Ch 34: 4 characteristics that make up a chordate Ray-finned vs lobe-finned fish Amniotes Birds vs. Reptiles vs. Mammals (general, shared, & unique characteristics) You do not need to know about human evolution for the AP test. It’s the most interesting idea in this chapter, but will not be covered (Campbell’s pages 657-665). Cliff’s has a cursory 1 paragraph review of chordates on page 189. You will need to read Campbell’s chapter! Vertebrate chordates have vertebrae (bones) that enclose and protect the spinal cord include sharks, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Phylum Chordata includes animals that have the following 4 characteristics (at some point in their development): 1. notochord —a dorsal (back of animal) rod that functions as a support structure. In most chordates, it is replaced by bone during embryonic development. 2. dorsal, hollow nerve cord —forms the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) 3. pharyngeal gill slits —provide structural communication from the pharynx to the outside of the body. Invertebrate chordate gill slits work for filter- feeding. Invertebrate chordates include lancelets and tunicates (have all 4 features,
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but no vertebrae bones). (see Figs 34.2, 34.3, pgs 631 and 632) Vertebrate chordate gill slits become gills
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