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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition Purpose—to understand the anatomy and function of animal digestive systems What you MUST know in Ch 41: Intracellular vs. extracellular digestion Comparative digestive systems (hydra, earthworm, insect, vertebrate) Alimentary canal enzyme areas, type of food digested, end product Peristalsis Hormonal control of enzyme secretion Fat digestion and transport Ruminant digestion (read on your own; p 808) Your digestive system exists to break down food, which is needed for fuel for metabolism & cellular work (to make ATP) synthesis of needed organic molecules o we need 20 amino acids; about half we cannot make essential nutrients (fatty acids, vitamins, minerals) you cannot make yourself (see tables 41.1, 41.2, p 795-796) Organic macromolecules…again! By now, this should be obvious: • Starches are broken down into glucose • Proteins are broken down into amino acids • Fats (lipids) are broken down into glycerol & fatty acids • Nucleic acids are broken down into nucleotides intracellular digestion —occurs in food vacuoles within a cell, in which enzymes break down food by hydrolysis extracellular digestion —breakdown of food outside cells • occurs in passages that are continuous with the outside of the body • digested food is then absorbed by individual cells • Hydra o Simple digestive pouch (gastrovascular cavity ) with a single opening o Engulfed food enters the opening and is...
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