carbohydrate - Chem234OrganicChemistryII...

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Chem 234 Organic Chemistry II   Professor Duncan J. Wardrop University of Illinois at Chicago Spring 2004 H N N Cl O N 3 HO N NH O O CH 3 N H H N Br O O Br N O O N H H H H H O MeO O O OMe OMe O OMe O HO O O O O HO N CO 2 H S O HN NH H H H HO N N CF 3 CH 3 H 2 NSO 2 Cl Cl Cl OH
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Chapter 25 Carbohydrates
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Topics Covered (Structure of Carbohydrates): 1. Classification of Carbohydrates 2. Viewing Carbohydrates through Fischer Projections 3. Stereochemistry and C-4, C-5 and C-6 Aldoses 4. Anomers 5. Conformation of  D -Glucose Today’s Lecture
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25.1 Classification of Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates  Defined carbohydrates originally,  compounds  such  as  aldoses  and  ketoses having  the  stoichiometric  formula  C n (H 2 O) n ,  hence  ‘hydrates  of  carbon’.  The  generic  term  carbohydrate  includes  monosaccharides,  oligosaccharides  and  polysaccharides  as  well  as  substances  derived  from  monosaccharides through various transformations. C n (H 2 O) n   …. . a hydrate of carbon? Perhaps, but more accurately described as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones
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Occurrence and Role of  Carbohydrates in Nature Carbohydrates  form  the  most  abundant  group  of compounds  found  natural  sources;  they  are  present  in animals and plants. The main source of carbohydrates is plant, which produce these important molecules through photosynthesis : carbohydrates  +  O  energy  +  CO 2  +  H 2 O energy (h υ ) + CO 2  + H 2   carbohydrates  +  O 2 Animals  consume  carbohydrates  and  transform  them  into CO 2 , water and the energy required for work:
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Industrial Uses of  Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have numerous industrial applications: 1. Food Industry  - sucrose (a disaccharide of  D -glucose and D -fructose  is  used  as  a  sweetening  agent  and preservative 2. Textile Industry  - cotton (cellulose) is extensively used as a textile. 3.  -  in  addition  to  being  used  in  the manufacture of paper, cellulose is also used as to make semi-synthetic polymers 4. Packaging  - cellulose derived from plants is used to make paper 5. Pharmaceutical Industry  - numerous antibiotics as well as vitamin  C  are  carbohydrates.  Also  used  as  starting
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Biologically Active Carbohydrates COCH 3 OH O H OH OH O O MeO O H 3 C NH 2 HO O O O CO 2 H HO HO O OH HO O O O OH HO O Daunomycin (treatment for acute myeloid leukemia) Part of the polysaccharide coat of M ycobacterium avium serovar O HO H OH Cl Cl O O OH Cl HO OH Sucralose (artificial sweetener) O OH HO HO HO S N O S O O K O Singrin (causes the hot taste of Wasabi)
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monosaccharides A  term  which  includes  aldoses,  ketoses  and  a  wide  variety  of  derivatives.    Derivation  includes  oxidation,  deoxygenation,  introduction 
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2011 for the course CHEM ORGANIC CH taught by Professor Dotsevisogah during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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carbohydrate - Chem234OrganicChemistryII...

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